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Développement d’une stratégie vaccinale par voie muqueuse ciblant les protéines de surface de Clostridium difficile

Abstract : Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic bacterium that is responsible for post-antibiotic diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The disruption of the intestinal microbiota barrier effect promotes the establishment of C. difficile, which multiplies, adheres to epithelial cells, and produces the toxins TcdA and TcdB. C. difficile infections are considered as a major public threat. In particular, the multiple recurrences are difficult to treat. Active immunization is one of the new approaches to reduce recurrences and the incidence of these infections. Several vaccine targeting toxins are in development. However, these vaccines have no effect on the first step of C. difficile infection, the host colonization. The objective was to develop a mucosal vaccine strategy to act on intestinal colonization. Surface proteins of C. difficile and TcdB involved in the pathogenicity process were selected and used as vaccine targets. These antigens were produced and encapsulated to deliver them to the intestinal mucosa. Furthermore, to induce a gut mucosal immunity, different adjuvants were tested. After vaccination, we analyzed the local and systemic immune response by immunoassays. Finally, in order to characterize new vaccine candidates, the role of different surface proteins in C. difficile colonization was evaluated. These vaccine trials were conducted in two animal models of reference for C. difficile infections: the mouse and the hamster models, which permit to follow the colonization and the survival rate after infection, respectively.
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Jean-François Bruxelle. Développement d’une stratégie vaccinale par voie muqueuse ciblant les protéines de surface de Clostridium difficile. Vaccinologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS355⟩. ⟨tel-01984391⟩

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