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Compréhension du métabolisme central et lipidique chez les plantes et les levures oléagineuses : approche fluxomique

Abstract : Growing world population and depletion of fossil resources have led to an increasing food and energy demand. While oleaginous plants are mostly cultivated for their fruits or their seeds in food industry, they are also valued in as an alternative to petrochemicals (biolubricant, biofuels). The production of lipids and unusual fatty acids increased the interest for unicellular organisms: yeasts. The aim of this work is to study two biological models: flax seed (Linum usitatissimum), whose oil is made up of 57% omega-3, and yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, exploited as a biotechnological chassis. The approach used to understand lipid metabolism is fluxomics. In addition, the development of a predictive model based on isotopic labelling (MFA) or constraint-based one (FBA) allows a dynamic analysis of the metabolism. The comparative study of three flax lines (with different oil and omega-3 levels) provided a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to lipid accumulation (up to 44.2 g.100 gDW-1). Therefore, we have been able to show that sucrose assimilation and starch remobilization are essential for fatty acid precursors and cofactors synthesis. Strong involvements of cytosolic glycolysis (G3P, acetyl-CoA) and pentose phosphate pathway (NADPH) have been noted, while protein and cell wall synthesis are limiting steps. In addition, PDAT would be a central enzyme for the incorporation of PUFA into TAGs. The study of three Yarrowia lipolytica strains also helped us to better understand yeast metabolism. The assimilation of an alternative carbone source to glucose, glycerol, led to a major metabolic redirection towards gluconeogenesis. The TAG synthesis flux especially uses glycolysis and a part of TCA cycle to convert citrate into acetyl-CoA. Kennedy pathway optimizations (GPD1 and DGA2 gene overexpression) allowed a lipid content improvement: +72% compared to a strain optimized for the synthesis of unusual fatty acids (LRO1 gene expression, encoding for a PDAT enzyme). The main competitive pathways are carbohydrate synthesis (glycogen) and citrate secretion (here repressed thanks to slow glucose assimilation. PDAT (LRO1 gene) also led to unusual fatty acid accumulation.
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Anthony Degournay. Compréhension du métabolisme central et lipidique chez les plantes et les levures oléagineuses : approche fluxomique. Biotechnologies. Université de Technologie de Compiègne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018COMP2438⟩. ⟨tel-01983553⟩

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