Modélisation du comportement mécanique et thermique des silices nano-architecturées

Abstract : Nanostructured silicas are ultra-porous materials (more than 80 % porosity) used to make Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIP).They have exceptional thermal properties, but poor mechanical properties. The goal of this thesis is to study these materials at the scale of the particle (a few nm), the aggregate of particles (a few tens of nm) and the agglomerate of aggregates (a few hundred nm), in order to better understand mechanical and thermal behaviour using simulations, and to propose ways to improve the thermal / mechanical compromise. The particulate nature of the material and its multi-scale naturejustify the use of Discrete Element Methods (DEM). An original model allowing to generate aggregates with controlledmorphology (fractal dimension, radius of gyration, porosity) is proposed. The compaction behaviour of the aggregates is then studied by DEM. A low-density cycling approach has been developed to obtain realistic initial aggregate arrangements.The preponderance of adhesive phenomena in the system makes it very sensitive to the initial arrangement. The tensile response of structures generated by compaction is also evaluated. The influence of aggregate morphology, adhesion and friction were studied. Emphasis is placed on the comparison of two types of silica (pyrogenic and precipitated) with different morphologies and for which experimental data allow a comparison with simulations. The simulations presented allow us to provide answers on the origin of the differences in mechanical behaviour observed experimentally for these two types of silica.A modeling of the thermal conductivity of the material, with a focus on solid conductivity, is also proposed.
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Étienne Guesnet. Modélisation du comportement mécanique et thermique des silices nano-architecturées. Matériaux. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAI075⟩. ⟨tel-01982891⟩

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