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Tumeurs du système nerveux central et expositions agricoles aux pesticides

Abstract : In the international literature, agricultural exposures to pesticides have been put forward as a key hypothesis to explain the excess of brain tumours observed in farmers. The aim of this thesis, based on data from the Agrican cohort, was to investigate the role of agricultural exposures to pesticides in the incidence of the main histological types of central nervous system tumours. With more than 180,000 participants followed since 2005, the Agrican cohort is one of the largest studies on health in agriculture. Internal comparisons adjusted for the main important confounders showed increases in risk among farmers, more pronounced risk among pesticide users, and with strong variations according to the types of crop and livestock farming. Following these initial analyses, work identified carbamate pesticides as a priority to study in relation to brain tumours. Next, further development of the Pestimat served to reconstitute the history of carbamate uses since 1950 in the main French agricultural contexts. After these intermediate steps, survival analyses conducted among Agrican participants showed increased risks of glioma and meningioma in farmers exposed to (dithio/thio)-carbamates, particularly with those recommended for use on vineyards, fruits, potatoes and beets. These findings reinforce the evidence of carcinogenicity among pesticides already suspected for other cancers, and draw attention to other active ingredients, less documented in the literature but relatively homogeneous in terms of chemical structures. Therefore, on the basis of these conclusions and with a public health objective in mind, it seems essential to pursue efforts to reduce farmers' exposure to pesticides.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 15, 2019 - 4:35:12 PM
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Clément Piel. Tumeurs du système nerveux central et expositions agricoles aux pesticides. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0466⟩. ⟨tel-01982467⟩

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