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Theses

Étude du comportement des murs de soutènement par clouage des sols en place : application au dimensionnement du parement

Abstract : Soil nailing is technique developped in France during the 70s for the retaining of excavations. Today, the facing of such structures is often designed to support the maximal tensions admissible in the reinforcements. The professionals generally admit that the service loads in the reinforcements are smaller than the calculated ones. Especially at the facing foot because of the construction phasage, from top to bottom. In 2015, The French Standardization for Geotechnical Structures Verification launched a revision of the standard concerning soil-nailing, especially about the facing design. In this context, this thesis aims at a better knowledge of soil-nailed walls behaviour and especially about the mobilization of the facing. The works consisted of a parametrical study on a centrifuge model (three nail lengths) and of a numerical modelling. On the centrifuge model, the nail tensions were observed, at each level, using Bragg grated optic fibers, placed at the core of the nails. The Bragg networks were placed 5 mm from each other (25 cm on the real wall). The displacements inside the soil were followed by a Particle Image Velocimetry like technique. The grains patterns were observed through a lateral translucid face. The experiments have shown a strong influence of the structure slenderness on displacements amplitude and on tensions allures. A 3D numerical model was also developped with CESAR-LCPC. It was realized with Finite Elements Method and the building phasage was respected. Nails were modelized by lineic elements whose nodes where shared with volumic elements. In order to simulate the friction law, an additional degree of freedom was introduced : the relative displacement between soil and nail. The deformation behaviour of the soil was simulated using Hardening Soil Model. The comparison of experimental and numerical results highlighted the influence of slenderness on wall behaviour as well as the limits of Finite Elements Method. In particular, the results are strongly dependant on the stiffness of soil and of the interface between soil and nail. This comparison also allowed to propose an improvement of the soil-nailing design. The PROSPER software choses a failure surface along which the displacement of soil mobilizes the reaction of the nails. This displacement is generally considered as homogenous but the results of the present work allow to propose an allure. Abacus have proposed for the distribution of this displacement and this design approach has been tested on an experimental wall.
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Jean Gauthier de Sauvage. Étude du comportement des murs de soutènement par clouage des sols en place : application au dimensionnement du parement. Matériaux et structures en mécanique [physics.class-ph]. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSET011⟩. ⟨tel-01981709⟩

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