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Contrôle de la fonction régulatrice des lymphocytes B : effet du Glatiramer Acetate

Abstract : B cell in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is unresponsive to all methods described to date, to activate B cells regulatory (Breg) function. Therfore, it is an interesting model to study the Breg deficiency in Human, and highlights many questions: is there a way to restore a defect of the Breg activation ? If yes, how can we act more efficiently ? Or in contrast, is it an irreversible state of the B cell? Glatiramer Acetate (GA) is a synthetic polypeptide used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. We show that Breg activity of SLE B cells can be restored after stimulation with GA. Interestingly, memory B cells bound high level of FITC-conjuated GA in contrast to mature B cells. We desmonstrate that GA can increased specifically the regulatory activities of memory B cells. GA exerts two major actions on the memory B cells. It generates an improved capacity of inhibition of the T cell proliferative response, whose mechanism is associated with a cellular contact involving HLA-DR molecules. In addition, GA supports a more effective control of the Th1 polarization which is most likely associated with its capacity to induce the production of IL-10 in these B cells. Finaly, GA modifies the memory B cell phenotype since the expression CD5, IL-21R, or PD-1 is significantly increased, all molecules involved in the suppressive function and the IL-10 production. In conclusion, our results show for the first time that amplification of Breg function and additionally its restoration when it is defective in patients, can be perfectly achieved in vitro. Currently, while the development of new process supporting the expansion of Bregs in the mouse model exist, the challenge is to extrapolate such methods in human. Through the control of their regulatory potential, regulatory B cells could be the targets of novel therapeutic approach in autoimmune diseases. This study might open up new horizons in this field.
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Kahina Amrouche. Contrôle de la fonction régulatrice des lymphocytes B : effet du Glatiramer Acetate. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015BRES0091⟩. ⟨tel-01981472⟩

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