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Caractérisation fonctionnelle des cellules souches cardiaques humaines dans un but thérapeutique

Abstract : The aim of this thesis was to develop and characterize a model of human heart stem cells in a context of cell therapy.A population of mesenchymal stem cells, expressing the W8B2 marker (CSCs W8B2+), was first isolated from human auricles and characterized using high-throughput RT-qPCR techniques, immuno-labeling, western-blot and calcium fluorescence imaging. These experiments were focused on 1. the gene expression of ion channels and calcium signaling proteins; and 2. the study of CSCs W8B2+ in vitro differentiation and associated intracellular calcium activity changes.The results show that CSCs W8B2+ tend to differentiate into pacemaker cells. Some nodal specific genes such as Tbx3, HCN, ICaT, L, Kv, NCX, are expressed during differentiation. The recording of calcium activity (via an optogenetic probe) shows the presence of calcium oscillations that change in frequency and intensity during differentiation. IP3 sensitive calcium stocks and the NCX exchanger would play a fundamental role in these variations.Then we studied the importance of the BKCa channel and the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors in the regulation of the fundamental properties of the W8B2+ CSCs. Inhibition of BKCa reduces cell proliferation by accumulating cells in the G0 / G1 phase, suppresses cell self-renewal but does not affect migration properties. Concerning S1P, it decreases proliferation and self-renewal without stimulate S1P1,2,3 receptors.This work highlights fundamental potential molecular targets in a context of cardiac cell therapy.
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Oualid Ayad. Caractérisation fonctionnelle des cellules souches cardiaques humaines dans un but thérapeutique. Biologie moléculaire. Université de Poitiers, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017POIT2303⟩. ⟨tel-01980920⟩

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