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Sensibilisation de l’adénocarcinome pancréatique canalaire à la chimiothérapie et à la radiothérapie par des molécules bioactives issues de l’alimentation

Abstract : Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is of poor prognosis in part because of resistance to conventional treatments such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Some naturally occurring bioactive food components (BFCs), with pro-oxidant properties are able to potentiate the cytotoxic action of conventional drugs in the PDAC. In addition, these BFCs could increase the DNA breaks induced by ionizing radiation. Objectives: To evaluate the combined action of several BFCs in combination with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in PDAC models and to identify mechanisms involved in chemo / radiosensitization at the cellular and molecular levels. Methods: Cell survival was evaluated in vitro in the presence of BFCs in combination on 4 pancreatic tumor cell lines. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Molecular mechanisms have been decrypted by western blot (signaling pathways) and flow cytometry (cell cycle and apoptosis). Finally, we evaluated the association of BFCs in gavage with intraperitoneal gemcitabine chemotherapy and with radiotherapy (2 Gy/fraction) in vivo, on subcutaneous CAPAN-2 cell xenografts. Results: In vitro, resveratrol (R), capsaicin (C) and sulforaphane (S) were cytotoxic with significantly higher inhibitory effect in combination (R + C), (C + S) or (R + C + S), without effect on fibroblasts. In addition, the combinations potentiated the otherwise limited action of gemcitabine on cells tested in vitro. In vivo, the addition of R + C to treatment with gemcitabine at reduced dose allowed tumor inhibition equivalent to that obtained with gemcitabine at full dose. Furthermore, in vitro, the addition of BFCs alone and in combination with radiotherapy significantly increases cellular toxicity on the CAPAN-2 epithelial line, compared to radiotherapy alone and BFCs alone or combined. In vivo, the combination R + C associated with radiotherapy allowed a significant decrease in tumor volumes compared to radiotherapy alone. The study of signaling pathways showed an increase of proapoptotic proteins with the association R + C and radiotherapy, in relation with an increased induction of ROS, but also, surprisingly, an inhibition of the repair of the DNA by inhibition of ATM phosphorylation. These two combined effects precipitated the death of the tumor cells. Conclusions: Combinations of R + C have a chemosensitizing and radiosensitizing effect in a preclinical model of PDAC, with identified molecular mechanisms relevant in the context of the therapies tested. By combining BFCs with radiochemotherapy with gemcitabine, we can hope for a double potentiation of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, by increasing the effectiveness of RT, and by reducing the dose of gemcitabine associated for similar efficiency and better tolerance treatment.
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Véronique Buttiaux. Sensibilisation de l’adénocarcinome pancréatique canalaire à la chimiothérapie et à la radiothérapie par des molécules bioactives issues de l’alimentation. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0332⟩. ⟨tel-01980609⟩

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