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Génomique des populations appliquée : détection de signatures de sélection au sein de populations expérimentales

Abstract : Population genomics makes it possible to detect traces of selection in the genome. Studies in this field have mainly focused on long time scale (~ 10³ generations). In comparison, short-term experimental studies (~ 10 generations) have attracted much less interest. Such experiments are, however, likely to inform us about the genetic basis of complex characters. We propose a likelihood method based on a Wright-Fisher model to detect selection from genetic temporal samples collected over ten generations. We show through simulation that our method can disentangle signals due to the combination of genetic drift and selection to those due to drift alone. We also show through simulation that it is possible to estimate the selection coefficient applied to a tested locus. In addition, we illustrate the interest of our method for the detection of candidate markers for selection through two genome scans performed on real data, in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) and in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). These practical applications highlight candidate genomic regions for complex phenotypes in different contexts. Collectively, our results show the possibility of detecting genes submitted to strong directional selection from genetic time-series, even if selection is applied on a short time period and if the examined populations are small.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01980327
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Submitted on : Monday, January 14, 2019 - 12:53:12 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01980327, version 1

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Jean-Noël Hubert. Génomique des populations appliquée : détection de signatures de sélection au sein de populations expérimentales. Génétique animale. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS141⟩. ⟨tel-01980327⟩

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