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Diabète, inflammation et stress oxydatif : impact sur la barrière hémato-encéphalique, la neurogenèse et la réparation cérébrale

Abstract : Type 2 diabetes is a complex and multifactorial disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes is currently a major and worldwide public health issue. The main objectives of this thesis were to investigate the peripheral and central impact of hyperglycemia (acute, recurrent and chronic) in vivo on complementary models (zebrafish and mouse). In zebrafish, acute and/or chronic hyperglycemia modulated cerebral expression of pro-inflammaty cytokines, as well as expression of genes involved in blood-brain barrier establishment. It also reduced neural progenitor proliferation in main neurogenic niches and impaired brain repair mechanisms. In the mouse, recurrent hyperglycemia induced a characterized prediabetes with central and peripheral alterations partially alleviated by glycine. All results suggest that, hyperglycemia contributes to related diabetes dysfunctions, through inflammation and oxydative stress, on blood-brain barrier integrity, neural plasticity including neurogenesis, and cognitive functions, and highlights the antidiabetic potential of glycine. In addition, a health-oriented teaching mission has been undertaken on university students. This holistic approach on diabetic disease could help in establishing effective prevention programs, early screenings and efficient therapies.
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Anne-Claire Dorsemans. Diabète, inflammation et stress oxydatif : impact sur la barrière hémato-encéphalique, la neurogenèse et la réparation cérébrale. Santé. Université de la Réunion, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LARE0017⟩. ⟨tel-01979869⟩

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