Periodontal pathobiology and defective cell-autonomous mineralization in X-linked hypophosphatemia

Abstract : X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a rare X-linked dominant disorder caused by inactivating mutations in the PHEX gene. The impairment of PHEX protein leads to an increase in FGF23, a circulating factor that causes systemic loss of phosphate. The rachitic skeleton of patients with XLH displays short stature and osteomalacia. Dental defects include poorly mineralized dentin and spontaneous dental abscesses. Little is known about the periodontal condition of XLH and if patients are more prone to develop periodontitis, eventually leading to tooth loss. Although the exact function and substrate of PHEX are not known, it has been shown in vitro that PHEX could interact with SIBLING proteins such as MEPE or OPN, both involved in the regulation of bone and dentin mineralization, but it is not yet clear if the defects in the calcified extracellular matrices of XLH are caused by systemic hypophosphatemia only, or also by local consequences of the absence of PHEX. The aim of this doctoral dissertation was to explore the pathobiology of the XLH periodontium and to determine the impact of PHEX deficiency at the local level in a model of human biomineralization where phosphate supply could be adjusted and normalized. We first examined 34 adults with XLH in a case-control study and observed that periodontitis frequency and severity were increased in individuals with late or incomplete supplementation in phosphate and vitamin D analogs. The periodontium was then analyzed in XLH dental roots and further characterized in the Hyp mouse, the murine model of XLH. We performed a model of tooth movement adaptation leading to the formation of cellular cementum and a model of periodontal breakdown and repair to investigate the impact of XLH on the pathobiology of periodontal tissues. Our results showed strongly affected XLH/Hyp periodontal phenotype and impaired pathobiology and suggested that the key role played by OPN in bone could not be generalized to other periodontal mineralized tissues. In order to determine the role of PHEX in local human mineralization, dense collagen gels were seeded with primary human dental pulp cells harvested from XLH patients displaying PHEX mutations and age-matched healthy individuals. Cell-seeded gels were cultured up to 24 days under osteogenic conditions and controlled phosphate medium concentrations. Our results showed that despite normal phosphate concentrations, PHEX deficiency led to decreased quantity and quality of the mineral phase and a pathologic accumulation and processing of OPN. Overall the original contributions of this doctoral dissertation consist in the demonstration of a higher susceptibility of XLH patients to periodontitis and in the evidence of a local effect of PHEX deficiency in the pathologic intrinsic mineralization from XLH osteogenic cells.
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Benjamin R. Coyac. Periodontal pathobiology and defective cell-autonomous mineralization in X-linked hypophosphatemia. Tissues and Organs [q-bio.TO]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCB006⟩. ⟨tel-01978774⟩

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