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Développement d’une nouvelle méthode analytique pour le dosage des polyphénols dans les fluides biologiques et application à l’épidémiologie du cancer dans la cohorte EPIC

Abstract : Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites found in diet and more than 500 different compounds are found in more than 450 foods. Along the last 30 years, many in vitro and animals studies have suggested a beneficial role of polyphenols in chronic diseases such as cancer. However, epidemiological studies based mainly on dietary questionnaires are inconsistent. New methodologies with broader polyphenol coverage are required to quantify a large diversity of compounds within large scale epidemiological studies.The goal of this thesis is to develop methods to quantify a large number of polyphenols representative of the main classes and sub-classes in blood and urine, evaluate urinary excretions of polyphenols and their association with food consumption in an European population, evaluate concentrations in blood in a nested case-control study on colorectal cancer within the European prospective investigation study on cancer and nutrition (EPIC).After a short presentation of polyphenols and colorectal cancer in chapter II, an original method based on differential isotopic dilution and analyse by tandem mass spectrometry is developed to quantify 38 polyphenols in urine and presented in chapter III. This method is based on differential 12C-/13C- isotope labelling of polyphenols through derivatisation with isotopic dansyl chloride reagents. Different conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugated polyphenols, extraction and dansylation of unconjugated aglycones have been tested, optimized and validated for the measure of 37 polyphenols.Urinary excretion levels of these 37 polyphenols in 475 subjects within EPIC cohort from 4 European countries are presented in chapter IV. Large urinary excretion variability in the 4 European countries has been shown and significant correlations with the consumption of specific food containing polyphenols have been observed suggesting the possible used of some polyphenols as biomarker for food consumption.A similar method on plasma for the 37 polyphenols, based on differential isotopic dilution, is developed, validated and applied to 1618 samples within the EPIC cohort (Chapter V). Main changes compared to the method developed on urine are essentially difficulties to hydrolyse conjugated polyphenols and huge matrix effects but reduced by the isotopic dilution method.Finally, the study on the association between polyphenols exposure measured owing to plasmatic marker with colorectal cancer risk has been driven in a nested case-control study within the EPIC cohort and is presented in chapter VI. An inverse association between plasmatic concentrations of equol, and a positive association between homovanillic acid and colon cancer risk have been found.Results obtained constitute a new approach for future applications in large scale epidemiology study on polyphenols
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David Achaintre. Développement d’une nouvelle méthode analytique pour le dosage des polyphénols dans les fluides biologiques et application à l’épidémiologie du cancer dans la cohorte EPIC. Biochimie [q-bio.BM]. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSE1239⟩. ⟨tel-01978493⟩

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