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Combinatoire dans des stabilisations du modèle du tas de sable sur la grille Z²

Abstract : The sandpile model is a discrete model for diffusion of grains on a graph introduced by physicists Bak, Tang and Wiesenfeld as an illustration for self-organised criticality. For any finite graph, Dhar identified many of its numerous structures which simplify its analysis. This thesis focus on the usual square lattice and its subgraphs which are strips of height H, both notions of infinite graphs. Approximations on the behaviour of the stabilisation of a large stack of grains at the origin of the square lattice lead to some random distribution of grains, which stabilisation is connected to some models of bootstrap percolation where modified vertices by this stabilisation forms a rectangle. The laws of the half-perimeter of this rectangle are described by statistics on permutations. As a byproduct, the difference between the generating functions over some permutations of two classical mahonian statistics on permutations appears to mainly be a polynomial with coefficients which are integers and especially positive. Then, this thesis visits in the case of the studied infinite graphs some well-defined structures on finite graphs, in particular the recurrence. In the model on an horizontal strip of height H, we extend the existence of finite automata recognizing recurrent configurations read column by column presented by Járai and Lyons to new automata with significantly less states and these numbers are closer to a conjecture due to Gamlin. An implementation leads to explicit automata for heights 3 and 4 while up to now only the case 2 was obtained by hand. In a second approach, we consider the configurations on the twodimensional square lattice which are periodic in two directions. We suggest to place the sink ensuring that the stabilisation ends at infinity in a direction of rational slope which allows to preserve biperiodicity and a weaker form of Dhar criterion for recurrent configurations. Hence we obtain an effective algorithm defining recurrent configurations among the biperiodic and stable configurations. These biperiodic and recurrent configurations are natural candidates for being the elements of finite subgroups of the hypothetical group on configurations of the sandpile model on the square lattice. We discuss some notions allowing the definition of the law of such a group and experimentally provide some finite subgroups.
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Submitted on : Friday, January 11, 2019 - 10:13:05 AM
Last modification on : Saturday, January 12, 2019 - 1:09:08 AM
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Henri Derycke. Combinatoire dans des stabilisations du modèle du tas de sable sur la grille Z². Algorithme et structure de données [cs.DS]. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0327⟩. ⟨tel-01977878⟩



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