Dynamique de la fasciolose dans un système fortement anthropisé : la Camargue

Abstract : The emergence and re-emergence of diseases encountered over the last hundred years represent a real health crisis largely due to anthropic disturbances that affect the ecosystems as well as the interactions between parasites and hosts. The prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases require an in-depth understanding of their dynamics in all the compartments in which they occur. Among these diseases, Fasciolosis is particularly sensitive to human related changes. This zoonosis caused by the parasite Fasciola hepatica, is commonly recognized as a veterinary problem and major public health issue in certain countries. Our study aims to understand the circulation dynamics and risks of fasciolosis emergence in a context of high anthropization. Our objective is (1) to study the dynamics of the intermediate host, a mollusc of the lymnaieidae family. (2) to understand the dynamics and diversity of the parasite between and within its different definitive host compartments. This work was carried out in the Camargue in the Tour du Valat estate, allowing us to have access to the definitive hosts, wild (nutria and wild boars), domestic (treated and untreated bulls) and the intermediate host, Galba truncatula. First, we characterized the habitats that are favorable to the intermediate host G. truncatula, presence in Camargue and we found that ponds appear to be areas of higher risk than irrigation channels for fasciolosis transmission. Then, we became interested in the influence of habitats on the dynamics of G. truncatula through population genetics approaches, our results showed that habitat permanence and connectivity influence the reproduction mode, population structure and dispersal of G. truncatula in the Camargue. In a second step, we studied the dynamics and circulation of the parasite within the definitive host compartment. Our results of the population genetic analyses of definitive hosts indicated that there were several transmission sites on our study area that constituted a single large global outbreak. In addition, the study of the circulation of the parasite between wildlife and domestic animals suggests the role of wild boars in the spread of the disease and the role of nutrias in maintaining the fasciolosis cycle. Our work highlights the value of long term studies and the importance of taking into account all the compartments involved to understand the epidemiology of a disease. They also emphasize the role of human activities and ecosystem in the dynamics of fasciolosis. The ultimate goal of this study is to propose integrated management measures adapted to the Camargue context in order to limit the health impact of fasciolosis and other livestock diseases in the region.
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Emeline Sabourin. Dynamique de la fasciolose dans un système fortement anthropisé : la Camargue. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université Montpellier, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTG047⟩. ⟨tel-01976817⟩

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