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Étude génomique de l'interférence entre la réplication et la transcription comme source du stress réplicatif

Abstract : Oncogenes activation promotes aberrant cell proliferation, increasing replication stress and DNA damage. It has been proposed that genomic instability leads to checkpoints inhibition and promotes cancer development (Halazonetis et al. 2008). However, the link between aberrant proliferation, replication stress and DNA breaks is still unclear. We hypothesized that aberrant proliferation leads to more incident due to DNA and RNA polymerases encounter and stalling. When the two polymerases encounter, the accumulation of positive-supercoiled DNA between two polymerases induces fork stalling, resulting in the formation of fragile structures such as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). These ssDNAs formed at stalled forks could be a source for DNA breaks, promoting the development of cancer cells. To validate this hypothesis, biologists from our team have worked on HeLa cell lines with increased replication-transcription conflicts. I perform the bioinformatics analysis of the following genomic data:-DRIP-seq: R-Loops positioning on genome using immunoprecipitation on DNA/RNA hybrids.-γ-H2AX ChIP-Seq: Gamma-H2AX is an histone mark found at DNA breaks.-pRPA ChIP-Seq : Positioning of stalled forks using the substrate of ATR kinase, phospho-RPA (S33) as a marker.Each data was produced on control cells and two cell lines where TOP1 and ASF/SF2 were depleted by as inducible shRNA (shTOP1 and shASF). Topoisomerase 1 is a topological enzyme that unwinds DNA when supercoiling accumulates. ASF/SF2 is part of the splicing complexes that processes mRNP (messenger ribonucleoprotein particles) to prevent the accumulation of R-loops during transcription. Using these data and others from literature, I determined that regions having higher risk to induce replication stress are located downstream of highly transcribed and early replicated genes, and preferentially with head-on collision between DNA and RNA polymerases. I also revealed that cancer-related genes are enriched in these regions of the genome.
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Ismaël Padioleau. Étude génomique de l'interférence entre la réplication et la transcription comme source du stress réplicatif. Génétique humaine. Université Montpellier, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MONTT053⟩. ⟨tel-01972517⟩

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