Contributions to optimal and reactive vision-based trajectory generation for a quadrotor UAV

Bryan Penin 1, 2
2 RAINBOW - Sensor-based and interactive robotics
Inria Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique , IRISA-D5 - SIGNAUX ET IMAGES NUMÉRIQUES, ROBOTIQUE
Abstract : Vision constitutes one of the most important cues in robotics. A single monocular camera can provide rich visual information at a reasonable rate that can be used as a feedback for control, state estimation of mobile robots or safe navigation in unknown environments for instance. However, it is necessary to satisfy particular visual constraints on the image such as visibility and occlusion constraints during motion to keep some visual targets visible. Quadrotors are endowed with very reactive motion capabilities due to their compact structure and motor configuration. Moreover, vision from a (fixed) on-board camera will suffer from rotation motions due to the system underactuation. In this thesis, we want to benefit from the system aggressiveness to perform several vision-based navigation tasks. We assume state estimation relies solely on sensor fusion of an onboard inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a monocular camera that provides reliable pose estimates. Therefore, visual constraints are challenging and critical in this context. In this thesis we exploit numerical optimization to design feasible trajectories satisfying several state, input and visual nonlinear constraints. With the help of differential flatness and B-spline parametrization we will propose an efficient replanning strategy inspired form Model Predictive Control to generate smooth and agile trajectories. Finally, we propose a minimum-time planning algorithm that handles intermittent visibility losses in order to navigate in larger cluttered environments. This contribution brings state estimation uncertainty at the planning stage to produce robust and safe trajectories. All the theoretical developments discussed in this thesis are corroborated by simulations and experiments run by using a quadrotor UAV. The reported results show the effectiveness of proposed techniques.
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Bryan Penin. Contributions to optimal and reactive vision-based trajectory generation for a quadrotor UAV. Robotics [cs.RO]. Université Rennes 1, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1S101⟩. ⟨tel-01972349v2⟩

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