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Approches optimisées du diagnostic de la tuberculose

Abstract : TTuberculosis continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, mainly in developing countries, despite being a curable disease. The rapid and accurate diagnosis of active TB is essential for rapid initiation of treatment and disease control. The development of new rapid diagnostic tests for active TB represents a real challenge for the optimization of the diagnosis.The main objective of our thesis work was to develop and evaluate real-time PCR approaches targeting the IS6110 insertion sequence for the detection of sputum MTB DNA. We first developed a real-time PCR targeting the IS6110 repeat sequence for the quantification of MTB DNA. The evaluation of the sensitivity optimization steps of the IS6110 PCR made it possible to specify the analytical performances and the sensitivity gain compared to a PCR targeting the single gene senX3. After a comparison of six lysis / extraction protocols, the Chelex® method proved to be the most efficient in the recovery of DNA. The diagnostic performance of optimized PCR was evaluated and compared with automated Xpert MTB / RIF PCR on a panel of 62 respiratory specimens.In a second step, we compared the diagnostic performance of the optimized IS6110 PCR, the Xpert MTB / RIF test and the highly marketed ultra-sensitive version of the Xpert MTB / RIF Ultra leader PCR assay for the detection of sputum MTB DNA. having a low bacillary load.Finally, from 203 LCR collected in the context of the diagnosis of aseptic meningitis in Burkina Faso, we evaluated the performance of the multiplexed real-time PCR (IS6110, HSV1, HSV2) combined with extraction by the Chelex® method for the detection of MTB and Herpes DNA.
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Mayitoukoulou Pratt-Arden Diafouka. Approches optimisées du diagnostic de la tuberculose. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Montpellier, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTT040⟩. ⟨tel-01972034⟩

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