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Développement de méthodes et d’outils numériques pour l’étude de la sûreté du réacteur à sels fondus MSFR

Abstract : This PhD thesis focuses on the study of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) safety. It includes risk analysis methods and deterministic computations for the safety and the design of the reactor. This work was performed in the frame of the SAMOFAR European project.The MSFR is an is-breeder reactor with a fast neutron spectrum. In its reference configuration, defined at the beginning of the SAMOFAR project, it works with the thorium fuel cycle. The MSFR was selected by the Generation IV international forum for its promising features. As any fourth-generation reactor, it must fulfill several objectives including an improved safety. Thus, safety studies should be performed from the early design phases to achieve a safety that is built-in the design rather than added-on. Because of the unique characteristics of the MSFR, including a liquid circulating fuel, and its preliminary design phase, the safety assessment of the reactor should rely on adapted and technological neutral methodologies. In this PhD, such a methodology was developed and a first application to the MSFR was carried on. It allowed to identify the initiating events of the reactor and to elaborate a restricted list of events to be studied in the next steps of the safety analysis.Furthermore, a new code system was developed for the safety studies. It is based on neutronic diffusion and takes into account the movement of the delayed neutrons precursors and the production of the residual heat in the fuel. It was used to simulate the transients associated to some of the identified initiating events with the objective to evaluate their consequences and the need for adequate protection systems. This work confirmed the importance of a device that is specific to the MSFR: the emergency draining system (EDS). It allows to drain the fuel in case of accident in the core. Parametric studies were then carried on for the sizing of the EDS with the objective to ensure the evacuation of the residual heat and the sub-criticality of the system under any circumstances.Finally, a first version of the safety architecture was proposed with the identification of the protection systems and the definition of the confinement barriers. Thanks to the safety studies, feedbacks on the initial design were made to enhance the safety the reactor. They include the addition of new components, the modification of some systems and they highlight the lack of knowledge on some phenomena or procedure. In that respect, the safety analysis fulfil its main objective: to influence the design of the reactor since its conception in order to improve its safety.
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Submitted on : Monday, January 7, 2019 - 2:23:07 PM
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Delphine Gerardin. Développement de méthodes et d’outils numériques pour l’étude de la sûreté du réacteur à sels fondus MSFR. Physique Nucléaire Expérimentale [nucl-ex]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAI068⟩. ⟨tel-01971983⟩



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