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Morphogenèse des moulins à vent d’Iran, techniques de gestion du vent de manière architectonique

Abstract : "The past is a foreign country: they do things differently over there"L.P. Hartly We wanted to look at the history of the first windmills. There are several reasons for this: much of the history of the windmill remains obscure and among others; two things are poorly known: the first relates to the date when the vertical axis windmill appeared for the first time in Iran (ancient Persia), and the second its evolution, the different types of this invention. The last reason for the need for our research is that there is as yet no clear hypothesis for linking the different types of vertical wind mills with a dated and documented chronology of the evolution of types in particular the Iranian vertical axis windmill. Energy sources like the wind - and the windmill are seen as a mediating technology between wind and human society. R. J. Forbes, the German historian of technology, argued that "primary engines" were the "keystone of technology". Using as a criterion these "primary engines," he distinguishes five periods in the history of human technology: the age of human muscle utilization, the era of animal muscle utilization, the era of energy provided by water, the era of energy created by the vapor and the era of atomic energy. In his classification, Forbes did not include the era of wind energy; we shall see that this era is the missing link between the era of hydraulic energy and the era of energy supplied by steam. With the use of wind energy, this era is also the longest in the history of energy use
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Kambiz Moshtaghe Gohari. Morphogenèse des moulins à vent d’Iran, techniques de gestion du vent de manière architectonique. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1079⟩. ⟨tel-01970718⟩

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