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Modélisation de la mécanique de la cellule et son noyau dans le cadre de la migration confinée

Abstract : One of the fundamental properties incells is their ability to migrate. Fromembryogenesis to tumor metastasis, migratingcells must overcome mechanical obstacles toreach their intended location, squeezing throughsub-cellular and sub-nuclear gaps. It can be doneby adapting the locomotion mode to thesurrounding environment or by tuning the cell’sown mechanical properties. Migrating in aconfined space leads to intensive deformation ofthe cell and thus its nucleus. Being the largestand stiffest organelle, the nucleus can hamperthe migratory process. Its mechanical propertieshence are key to a successful migration in acomplex environment. Molecular signals behindcell migration have been extensively studied inthe literature, but what can computationalmechanics modeling unveil about themechanisms behind cell migration?Cell migration is such a complex mechanobiologicalprocess, that all aspects cannot bemodeled at once for now. We choose threedistinct situations for in-depth study. We firstseek to understand the mechanical interplaybetween the nucleus and the cytoplasm, sincenuclear plasticity seems decisive for migrationthrough sub-nuclear gaps. Second, weinvestigate the mechanics of chimneying, aspecific confined migratory mode, in which noadhesion in needed for the cell to move forward.Poroelasticity, coupled with friction, appears asthe key to successful locomotion. Eventually,cell spreading on micro-pillared substrates hasrecently been developed to study nuclearmechanical properties. The mechanism behindthis process being however unclear, we designeda large deformation model to determine whetherthe nucleus is being pushed or pulled in theinter-pillars gaps.
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Solenne Deveraux. Modélisation de la mécanique de la cellule et son noyau dans le cadre de la migration confinée. Autre. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLC063⟩. ⟨tel-01968076⟩

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