Optimal resource allocation strategies for electric vehicles in smart grids

Bahram Alinia 1, 2
2 R3S-SAMOVAR - Réseaux, Systèmes, Services, Sécurité
SAMOVAR - Services répartis, Architectures, MOdélisation, Validation, Administration des Réseaux
Abstract : With the increased environmental concerns related to carbon emission, and rapid drop in battery prices (e.g., 35% drop in 2017), the market share of Electric Vehicles (EVs) is rapidly growing. The growing number of EVs along with the unprecedented advances in battery capacity and technology results in drastic increase in the total energy demand of EVs. This large charging demand makes the EV charging scheduling problem challenging. The critical challenge is the need for online solution design since in practical scenario the scheduler has no information of future arrivals of EVs in a time-coupled underlying problem. This thesis studies online EV scheduling problem and provides three main contributions. First, we demonstrate that the classical problem of online scheduling of deadlinesensitive jobs with partial values is similar to the EV scheduling problem and study the extension to EV charging scheduling by taking into account the processing rate limit of jobs as an additional constraint to the original problem. The problem lies in the category of time-coupled online scheduling problems without availability of future information. Using competitive ratio, as a well-established performance metric, two online algorithms, both of which are shown to be (2 − 1/U)-competitive are proposed, where U is the maximum scarcity level, a parameter that indicates demand-to-supply ratio. Second, we formulate a social welfare maximization problem for EV charging scheduling with charging capacity constraint. We devise charging scheduling algorithms that not only work in online scenario, but also they address the following two key challenges: (i) to provide on-arrival commitment; respecting the capacity constraint may hinder fulfilling charging requirement of deadline-constrained EVs entirely. Therefore, committing a guaranteed charging amount upon arrival of each EV is highly required; (ii) to guarantee (group)-strategy-proofness as a salient feature to promote EVs to reveal their true type and do not collude with other EVs. Third, we tackle online scheduling of EVs in an adaptive charging network (ACN) with local and global peak constraints. Two alternatives in resource-limited scenarios are to maximize the social welfare by partially charging the EVs (fractional model) or selecting a subset of EVs and fully charge them (integral model). For the fractional model, both offline and online algorithms are devised. We prove that the offline algorithm is optimal. We prove the online algorithm achieves a competitive ratio of 2. The integral model, however, is more challenging since the underlying problem is NP-hard due to 0/1 selection criteria of EVs. Hence, efficient solution design is challenging even in offline setting. We devise a low-complexity primal-dual scheduling algorithm that achieves a bounded approximation ratio. Built upon the offline approximate algorithm, we propose an online algorithm and analyze its competitive ratio in special cases
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Bahram Alinia. Optimal resource allocation strategies for electric vehicles in smart grids. Networking and Internet Architecture [cs.NI]. Institut National des Télécommunications, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018TELE0012⟩. ⟨tel-01968066⟩

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