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Environmental demogenetic model

Abstract : Because biological invasions are processes well delimited in both space and time, they offer a unique framework in which complex models can be studied by numerical simulations. We use the Approximated Bayesian Computation method (ABC)to study the Vespa velutina invasion, estimating the parameters of spatially explicit demographic and genetic probabilistic model. The population growth in each landscape unit is described by a function of the local environmental features, whereas the migration flux between populations are sampled in laws which densities are functions of the geographical distance. Some of the parameters of these functions are unknown and should be estimated. Conditionally to the demography, a coalescence process allows for simulating the genetic history of the sample. Once the simulation done, the ABC method allows for accepting/rejecting the parameters values as a function of the data plausibility they generate. Models comparison is a key step in ABC methodology: this requires that various versions of coalescence-based simulators can be quickly developed. To this end, this thesis offers Quetzal, a library general enough to be easily adapted to an open-ended number of models variants. It includes original and generic algorithms. The main programming concepts required to use and extend Quetzal are presented through the various chapters. Finally, we take advantage of the biological context to develop a specific methodology built on the fuzzy partitions formalism. It allows to focus only on the very recent demographic processes, and consequently to reduce the number of hypothesis,the number of parameters, and the simulation cost of the analysis.
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Arnaud Becheler. Environmental demogenetic model. Populations and Evolution [q-bio.PE]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS145⟩. ⟨tel-01968062⟩

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