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Lien entre signalisation JAK/STAT, remodelage cellulaire et extrusion d’un groupe de cellules épithéliales dans l’ovaire de drosophile

Abstract : Epithelial cells change in shape and number over the various morphogenetic processes occurring during development. The dynamics of the acto-myosin network in direct interaction with adherens junctions is the basis of these cell movements. However, the mechanisms regulating these cellular and molecular dynamics in space and time have not been much studied. During the early stages of oogenesis in Drosophila, the ovarian follicle is a sphere composed of a germline cyst surrounded by a mono-layered follicular epithelium of somatic origin. At the poles of this structure, a group of cells, the Polar Cells (PCs), which are produced in excess (3-6 cells) during early oogoenesis, undergo apoptotic programmed cell death between stages 2-4 of oogenesis, thus that as of stage 5 all poles contain exactly 2 PCs. PCs are the only source of the secreted ligand of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, Unpaired. Our group has demonstrated that cell autonomous and cell non-autonomous activation of the JAK/STAT pathway is necessary for this developmental apoptosis. Through the use of confocal imaging in real time and on fixed tissues, I established a stereotyped sequence of events that occurs during the elimination of supernumerary PCs. Three phases were identified in this sequence: 1) a slow phase of cellular remodeling dependent on JAK/STAT signaling in which the PC to be eliminated is completely enveloped by its PC neighbors (more than 7 hours); 2) activation of the canonical apoptosis cascade, occurring when the PC is fully enveloped, followed by cell detachment and lateral extrusion of apoptotic corpses (1h); and 3) phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses by the surrounding Follicular Cells (FCs) (over 5 hours). Then, using a candidate gene approach, I conducted genetic perturbation of Myosin, Cadherin and actin regulators in the FCs and/or PCs, and the analysis of the dynamics of some of these molecules. These experiences allowed me to determine that the function of these molecules is required in FCs for the process of elimination of supernumerary PCs. Finally, evidence obtained suggests a link between JAK/STAT signaling and Myosin dynamics.
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Alba Yurani Torres Espinosa. Lien entre signalisation JAK/STAT, remodelage cellulaire et extrusion d’un groupe de cellules épithéliales dans l’ovaire de drosophile. Morphogenèse. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLS558⟩. ⟨tel-01968052⟩

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