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Rôle du gène de fusion TMPRSS2.ERG dans la formation des métastases osseuses du cancer de la prostate

Abstract : Local prostate cancers are associated with slow progression and good survival, while advanced stages reveal incurable bone metastases in 80% of cases. The discovery of fusion genes resulting from chromosomal rearrangements, such as TMPRSS2:ERG in more than 50% of cases, opened a new way in understanding the process of prostate cancer. The presence of this fusion gene may be associated with poor prognosis in many clinical studies. However, its precise role during cancerization and progression of prostate cancer remains to be determined. The Erg gene (Ets related gene) encodes a transcription factor whose expression is associated in particular with embryonic skeleton development. This suggests a potential role of the fusion gene involving this factor, and its target genes, in the formation of prostate cancer bone metastases.In this study, we used prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and PC3c, stably expressing the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene and previously established in the laboratory. First, using a model of intratibial injections in SCID mice, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of the fusion enhances the ability to induce osteoblastic lesions by inhibiting osteolysis in the osteolytic PC3 model, and by stimulating osteoformation in the mixed PC3c model (osteolytic and osteoblastic). This ectopic expression of the fusion also increases osteomimicry in both cell models, meaning the acquisition of a bone-cell-like phenotype which gives them advantages of survival and spread in the bone marrow. In addition, three new TMPRSS2:ERG target genes have been described: ET-1 (Endothelin-1), stimulating osteoblastic differentiation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption, ALPL (Alkaline Phosphatase Liver/Bone/Kidney), a marker of the osteoblasts differentiation, and COL1A1 (Collagen Type 1 Alpha 1), a component of the bone matrix, providing novel insights into the role of the fusion gene in the formation of osteoblastic metastases of prostate cancer.In addition, two other genes have been studied, encoding either a protein involved in the stabilization of particular structures called invadopodia, or a protein involved in lipid metabolism.All these results contribute to decipher the mechanisms of cancerization and metastatic progression of prostate cancer, in particular the influence of the expression of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene in prostate cancer bone metastases.
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Carine Delliaux. Rôle du gène de fusion TMPRSS2.ERG dans la formation des métastases osseuses du cancer de la prostate. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIL2S009⟩. ⟨tel-01968027⟩

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