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Dietary Factors, Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy

Abstract : Background : Type 2 diabetes (T2D) presents a significant health burden that is associated with many complications, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR), that further burden people with diabetes. Modifiable risk factors, such as the diet, have been identified for both T2D and DR; yet certain aspects of the role of the diet remain unclear. Objectives : The main objectives of this thesis were therefore to examine the role and impact of the diet, and in particular, the consumption of fatty acids (FAs), and other modifiable behaviours on the risk of T2D and to summarize, interpret and analyze the relationship between the diet and DR using data from both the E3N and AusDiab cohort studies. Results : The results suggest that the role of FAs on the risk of T2D and DR may differ between and within subgroups, and by individual polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The findings also suggest that strongly adhering to national dietary guidelines is not associated with the development of T2D, but strongly adhering to other recommendations for healthy behaviours (for waist circumference, physical activity and smoking) is strongly inversely associated with T2D. Modifiable behaviour could have prevented more than half of the cases of T2D. Conclusions : This work underlines the importance and the complexity of the role of the diet in the development of T2D and DR. It also illustrates the impact of healthy behaviour in the etiology of T2D and confirms that T2D is largely preventable. Efforts should focus on the modification of multiple healthy behaviours in populations, and promote diets that are moderate and widely varied.
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Courtney Dow. Dietary Factors, Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy. Food and Nutrition. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS380⟩. ⟨tel-01967627⟩

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