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Isolement et caractérisation de cellules souches cancéreuses dans un modèle murin de tumorigénèse mammaire

Abstract : Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The isolation and characterization of breast cancer stem cells (CSC) are crucial for understanding cancer biology and revealing potential therapeutic targets. One of the major issues in the study of CSC is the lack of reliable markers. A transgenic mouse model (Tg 11.5kb–GFP) was generated using the 11.5kb s-SHIP (stem-SH2-containing 5’-Inositol Phosphatase) promoter that specifically expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) in embryonic and various tissue stem cells. In the mammary gland, previous experiments showed that GFP labels puberty cap cells and pregnancy basal alveolar bud cells, and it has been demonstrated that these mammary GFP+ cells are activated tissue stem cells. In order to determine if s-SHIP promoter expression could also mark mammary cancer stem cells, we generated a bi-transgenic mouse model by crossing Tg 11.5kb-GFP mice with Tg C3(1)/Tag mice. Tg C3(1)/Tag mice express SV40 T antigen under the regulatory control of the rat prostatic steroid binding protein C3(1) gene. In female mice, the transgene is expressed primarily in the mammary gland. Mice develop mammary hyperplasia by 3 months of age with subsequent development of mammary adenocarcinoma by 6 months of age.Here we show the presence of a rare population of GFP+ cells, which are also CD24+/CD49f+/CD29+ in mammary tumors of female bi-transgenic mice. As compared to GFP- cells, GFP+ cells exhibit both a higher tumor sphere-forming potential, and a higher tumorigenicity when transplanted into SCID and FVB recipient mice. Moreover, upon subsequent transplantation, the GFP+ cells generated heterogeneous tumors that displayed properties similar to the primary tumor. Transcriptomic analysis of these GFP+ vs GFP- cells revealed several differentially expressed genes including one protein implicated in the Notch pathway. In addition, from the murine mammary tumor, I have derived a cell line containing a s-SHIP/GFP+ subpopulation that shows resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. I have further studied this subpopulation and found that synuclein gamma could confer radiation resistance to breast cancer cells. Altogether, these results demonstrate that s-SHIP promoter expression is a marker of mammary CSC that enables their identification and isolation via a single consistent parameter.
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Lu Tian. Isolement et caractérisation de cellules souches cancéreuses dans un modèle murin de tumorigénèse mammaire. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIL2S001⟩. ⟨tel-01967626⟩

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