Portage animal des Escherichia coli entérohémorragiques : colonisation et interaction avec le microbiote digestif animal

Abstract : Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) which represent the fourth pathogen leading to foodborne illness in Europe. Contamination by these pathogens results mainly from the ingestion of food contaminated by feces of bovine, for which the digestive tract appears as the main natural reservoir of EHEC. These pathogens survive in the digestive tract of ruminants, which is healthy carriers, and seem well-adapted to this complex ecosystem. Reducing animal carriage is a strategy of choice to limit EHEC human infections. The aim of this thesis was to increase our knowledge on the physiology and ecology of EHEC in the digestive tract of bovine, a key step to propose, ultimately, different strategies to limit the carriage. Transcriptome analysis of the EHEC O157:H7 reference strain EDL933 allowed the identification of metabolic pathways used by EHEC in different compartments of the digestive tract of the animal. Some carbohydrates, including those from the intestinal mucus layer, and amino acids as well as ethanolamine appear to be important substrates for the survival of EHEC throughout the bovine digestive tract. This transcriptomic study also revealed the activation, by the EHEC strain, of several stress resistance systems encountered in the bovine digestive tract, including toxin/anti-toxin systems. The activation of these systems and the ability to form biofilms have also been observed in a bovine STEC O157:H7 strain, MC2 strain, under conditions mimicking persistence in the environment. Genomic and phenotypic characterization allows this strain to be considered as pathogenic and in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that the MC2 strain was able to persist in the bovine digestive tract but also in the farm environment. The experimental inoculation of bovines with the MC2 strain led to the development, for the first time in France, of a reproducible animal model of carriage and excretion of STEC O157:H7. This model could be used to test in vivo the effect of food additives, such as probiotics, in order to reduce the carriage and excretion of EHEC strains by bovines, and thus limit the contamination of humans.
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Audrey Segura. Portage animal des Escherichia coli entérohémorragiques : colonisation et interaction avec le microbiote digestif animal. Toxicologie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC002⟩. ⟨tel-01967620⟩

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