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Selective Electrocatalytic reduction mediated by Sm(II) : Application to nitroarenes, sulfoxides and phthalimides

Abstract : The SmI₂ as a single electron transfer reagent has been widely used in organic chemistry since the pioneering works by Kagan. However, the stoichiometric or excess amount of SmI₂ and harmful additives such as HMPA are used normally to enhance the reactivity, moreover, due to the oxygen sensitive, the storage of SmI₂ solution is difficult.Recently, we have developed a new electrocatalytic method based on the electrochemical regeneration of Sm²⁺. Compared to the classic SmI₂ reaction, our process occurred with a catalytic amount of Sm. In the reduction of nitroarenes, it selectively afforded the azo aromatic compounds and anilines depending on different solvents system. Notably, it’s the first time that the Sm²⁺ reaction occurred in the methanol. Normally, the HMPA was the additive in the reduction of sulfoxides by SmI₂. Under our electrocatalytic process, the sulfoxides were converted into sulfides in high chemoselectivity and yield at room temperature without HMPA and protecting atmosphere.The isoindolinone derivatives are series of important products in organic chemistry, the reduction of phthalimides is the most convenient approach to provide them. With alcohols, the unprecedented Sm²⁺ electrocatalyzed reductive alkoxylation of phthalimides was established. Moreover, adding other proton sources, this process afforded the corresponding ω-hydroxylactams and isoindolinones.
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Yu-Feng Zhang. Selective Electrocatalytic reduction mediated by Sm(II) : Application to nitroarenes, sulfoxides and phthalimides. Organic chemistry. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS596⟩. ⟨tel-01967611⟩

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