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Recherche d'outils thérapeutique innovants pour lutter contre la bactérie Acinetobacter baumannii.

Abstract : Today, Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most problematic pathogens in the world. This bacterium is responsible for worldwide epidemic outbreaks associated with dramatic mortality rates. It possesses high capacities to evade the immune host system and to resist to numerous available antibacterial agents. A. baumannii is also able to persist into hospital environment due to high adhesion abilities which induce community development. This process is also associated to an enhanced survival rate. In Acinetobacter genus, community modes of lif can take two forms : biofilm and pellicle. In this study on the strain ATCC 17978, we tried to discriminate these two lifestyles by a large scale proteomic analysis. We have confirmed the presence of many common community markers (transporters, ion acquisition secretion systems, adhesins and pili) and highlighted systems specifically related to biofilm (pilus Fim, T2SS, T1SS / pump A1S_0535-38, LPS / LOS, capsular pattern) and pellicle communities. Furthermore the proteomic analysis of an avirulent A. baumannii strain, SDF, in biofilm allowed to highlight peculiar metabolic pathways, specific adhesion determinants but very few markers shared by ATCC 17978. This demonstrated the difficulty in developing a treatment directed against A. baumannii biofilm. Then, we tested different approaches to prevent and eradicate biofilms. The first one targeted the Quorum Sensing system (QS), an essential communication system for cell coordination. We have showed that monounsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic acid and myristoleic acid), like virstatin prevent the community formation of A. baumannii by inhibiting the expression of the abaR regulator required for QS. In a second strategy, we have evaluated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of a new natural compound : the squalamine. We showed for the first time that if ciprofloxacin treatment was able to induce a dormancy population (persistent/VBNCs) in A. baumannii, squalamine was able to eradicate this population of dormant cells.
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Marion Nicol. Recherche d'outils thérapeutique innovants pour lutter contre la bactérie Acinetobacter baumannii.. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Normandie Université, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NORMR132⟩. ⟨tel-01962946⟩

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