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Effet des Cellules Gliales Olfactives issues des Bulbes Olfactifs sur les cellules souches épendymaires et leur progénie après une lésion médullaire.

Abstract : The spinal cord injuries (SCI) lead to the damages of the spinal cord or nerves and often cause permanent changes in body functions leading to the death. Cell therapies have raised great hope for regenerative medicine. Clinical data showed that the olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) enhanced functional recovery after SCI and could be a very attractive therapeutic approach. Moreover, the discovery of a new endogenous resident stem cell population, lining the central canal of the spinal cord, named ependymal stem cells, represents a new hope for the therapy. This thesis analyzed the role of OECs transplantation, on the behaviour of ependymal stem cells since these cells, together with astrocytes and pericytes significantly contribute to the recovery of SCI. The use of the mouse model hFoxJ1-CreERT2::YFP (allowing to specifically follow the ependymal stem cells ant their progeny) showed that OECs increased in vitro the self-renewal potential of spinal cord stem cells and modified their differentiation pathway towards a neural type. In vivo, OECs transplantation significantly increases the proliferation of ependymal cells and their differenciation into hypo-reactive astrocytes leading to the formation of a beneficial environment to neuronal survival and the neurogenesis establishment. Our results also showed for the first time that OECs transplantation after SCI allows the generation of new neurons by non-ependymal cell-derived progenitors. These results represent a new hope in the establishment of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of SCI in humans.
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Axel Honoré. Effet des Cellules Gliales Olfactives issues des Bulbes Olfactifs sur les cellules souches épendymaires et leur progénie après une lésion médullaire.. Neurobiologie. Normandie Université, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NORMR060⟩. ⟨tel-01962944⟩

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