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Tissue-resident memory T cells in eczema : contribution and protective regulatory mechanisms

Abstract : Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and atopic dermatitis (AD), also referred to contact or atopic eczema, are frequent skin inflammatory diseases with increasing prevalence and high socioeconomic impact in Western countries. Eczemas are the prototype of skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Skin lesions are induced by the recruitment and activation in the skin of effector/memory T cells specific for environmental antigens that are innocuous to healthy non-allergic individuals.The aim of this work was to better understand the pathophysiology of eczemas by a comprehensive analysis of the contribution of skin resident memory T cells (Trm) to the chronicity and severity of these diseases.Capitalizing on relevant preclinical eczema models and on clinical samples collected from allergic patients, this work showed that: (i) numerous allergen-specific CD8+Trm colonize the eczema lesion, (ii) they accumulate in the epidermis in response to the long-term persistence of the allergen in the skin, (iii) they are instrumental for the recurrence of eczema, but (iv) theyexpress several inhibitory check point receptors (ICRs, such as PD-1, TIM-3) at their surface, which keep them in check to prevent the development of severe immunopathology.Thus, our work provides important information for considering the unique nature of hapteninduced CD8+ Trm and the mechanisms that prevent their unwanted reactivation and subsequent development of chronic or severe skin allergy. The development of therapeutic strategies targeting the reactivation of skin Trm in situ via their ICRs should open new avenues to restore tolerance in allergic individuals
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Pia Gamradt. Tissue-resident memory T cells in eczema : contribution and protective regulatory mechanisms. Cellular Biology. Université de Lyon, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSE1306⟩. ⟨tel-01962943⟩

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