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, Fang et al. 2011 indiquent : "the national MFZ scheme in 2002 divided sea areas under national jurisdiction into 10 types of functional zones: 941 port and shipping zones, 1888 fishing and fishery resource conservation zones, 202 mining zones, 452 tourism and recreation zones, 319 sea water use zones, 60 ocean energy use zones, 449 construction use zones (the subzone for submerged pipeline, reclamation, shore protection, bridge, and others), 285 marine protected areas, 309 special use zones, and 451 reserved areas, ID I4 I5 I6 I7 Commentaires CH-1 1 1 1 1 Les orientations stratégiques se déclinent spatialement à travers un plan de zonage. Celui-ci est précis dans ses délimitations et prescriptif. Feng et al. 2016 indiquent, 2003.

, Hormis les objectifs en lien avec la conservation, ce document ne contient pas d'orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement (pour prévoir/anticiper le développement de tel ou tel usage)

, Ce document ne contient pas d'orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement

, AU-5 0 0 Ce document ne contient pas d'orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement

, Ce document ne contient pas d'orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement

, Ce document ne contient pas d'orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement

, 1 1 1 Ce document contient des orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement uniquement en ce qui concerne les objectifs en lien avec la conservation (et non pour prévoir/anticiper le développement de tel ou tel usage). Il dévoile un zonage dont le découpage est précis et qui est prescriptif

, 37000 km²) correspondant à la zone des 12 à 60 milles où les senneurs sont interdits (un chiffre évoque 42800 km²) mais les palangriers sont autorisés, KI-9 1 1 1 1 Les orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement concernent surtout la pêche. Le document dévoile un zonage précis et prescriptif, avec un horizon à 4 ans, vol.9, pp.1-9

, Des orientations stratégiques sont déclinées spatialement pour l'aquaculture et les MPAs principalement. La vision du futur s'exprime à travers un zonage précis mais indicatif pour MPAs et aquaculture. Il est intéressant de noter que la stratégie d'établissement des AMP est discutée dans le cadre de ce plan

, pour chaque activité menée dans le PBMN, les postulats spatiaux sous-jascents et au sein desquels la vision fondamentale et les principes devront être appliqués. Les postulats spatiaux constituent une traduction simplifiée des conditions accessoires juridiques (p.ex. réglementation difficilement modifiable), physiques (p.ex. le besoin d'un fond spécifique pour l'extraction de sable et de gravier) et diverses (p.ex. rentabilité). Le niveau de détail est abstrait, car il s'agit ici de postulats d'aménagement globaux à long terme, qui ne sont pas contraignants. Ils doivent être suffisamment flexibles pour pouvoir servir, au cours de ces 10 ou 30 prochaines années, de fil conducteur du cadre spatial. Les postulats spatiaux ne sont pas contraignants et renvoient au fait de ne pas hypothéquer l'utilisation future (au-delà des six ans). La vision sur ce qui peut être important après la période de planification constitue une condition cadre majeure, La vision fondamentale et les principes exposés dans les paragraphes précités sont concrétisés ci-après en énonçant

, CR-12 1 1 1 1 Les orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement ne concernent (pour la partie marine du plan) que l'aquaculture et secondairement les aires protégées. Des zones sont clairement identifiées pour un développement futur de l'aquaculture offshore, tout en prenant en compte les aires marines protégées existantes

, déclinés spatialement ne sont qu'une reprise de planifications sectorielles, d'ailleurs réservées à certains secteurs (éolien, transport, etc.). Le document propose un zonage comme cadre de ce développement futur, GE-13 1 1 1 1 Les orientations stratégiques

, GE-14 1 1 1 1 Les orientations stratégiques déclinés spatialement ne sont qu'une reprise de planifications sectorielles, d'ailleurs réservées à certains secteurs (éolien, transport, etc.). Le document propose un zonage comme cadre de ce développement futur

, Ce document ne contient pas d'orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement. Cela étant, au-delà de l'existant, une carte fait apparaître un zonage pour les petites activités de pêche, de manière à lui réserver des secteurs étant donné son degré de dépendance à la zone côtière (sic)

, GE-16 0 0 Ce document ne contient pas d'orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement

, GE-17 0 0 Ce document ne contient pas d'orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement

, LA-18 1 1 1 1 Les orientations stratégiques ne sont qu'une déclinaison de planifications sectorielles

, Aplicación del Sistema de Zonificación Funcional de las Áreas Protegidas de Galápagos"). Ce zonage est structuré de la manière suivante : "(...) the GMR was divided in three main zones: (1) multiple use zone, (2) limited use zone, and (3) port zone. The multiple use zone includes deep waters (>300 m) located inside and outside the GMR's boundaries; all human activities permitted by the GNP can be undertaken (fishing, tourism, scientific research, navigation and surveillance manoeuvres). The limited use zone embraces the coastal waters (<300 m) that surround each island, islet or protruding rock. This zone was divided in four subzones: ? Comparison and protection (conservation subzone), ? Conservation and non-extractive use (tourism subzone), ? Conservation, extractive and non-extractive, EQ-35 0 0 1 1 Ce document ne contient pas d'orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement. Ce qui est confirmé par Castrejon et Charles, 2013.

, Ce document ne contient pas d'orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement. Il s'agit surtout d'une approche technique qui permet d'identifier des zones d'intérêt prioritaires, en combinant des critères de pressions et fragilité. Les zones présentées sont précises mais seulement indicatives

, Ce document ne contient pas d'orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement. Il s'agit surtout d'une approche technique qui permet d'identifier des zones d'intérêt prioritaires, en combinant des critères de pressions et fragilité. Les zones présentées sont précises mais seulement indicatives

, Ce document ne contient pas d'orientations stratégiques déclinées spatialement. Il s'agit surtout d'une approche technique qui permet d'identifier des zones d'intérêt prioritaires, en combinant des critères de pressions et fragilité. Les zones présentées sont précises mais seulement indicatives

, US-39 1 1 1 0 Les orientations stratégiques se déclinent spatialement à travers un plan de zonage. Ce zonage présente trois types de zones : Prohibited areas, Renewable energy areas, Multi-Use area

, En principe la pêche est physiquement possible dans toute la PBMN. Les facteurs déterminants sont toutefois la distance économiquement rentable entre les pêcheries et les ports d'escale (liées au segment spécifique de la flotte/zone des 3 et des 12 miles : limitations spécifiques) et la relation avec la navigation (aspects de sécurité), parc éoliens (pas de passage possible en raison de la sécurité) et protection de la nature (il est nécessaire de chercher un équilibre). Pendant les activités de dragage également, la pêche est impossible (aspect temporel). La pêche n'est autorisée dans la grande route maritime (côté nord de la PBMN) que moyennant des limitations strictes, Toutes les zones de pêche existantes dans la PBMM devront demeurer accessibles, sous réserve de l'aménagement d'infrastructures destinées à garantir la sécurité de la côte et à assurer le stockage et le transport d'énergie, vol.2, 2009.

. Il-existe-un-zonage-dans-le-document, Restrictive area designations for fisheries cannot be made because of the regulatory competence of the EU; it is also little convincing to delineate fishing grounds spatially especially because of the current common fishery policy of the EU. Regulations taking into account the interests of fisheries are being established in first place as part of the regulations for the uses of resource exploitation, pipelines and submarine cables as well as the generation of power (see Chapter, p.20

. Il-existe-un-zonage-dans-le-document, Restrictive area designations for fisheries cannot be made because of the regulatory competence of the EU; it is also little convincing to delineate fishing grounds spatially especially because of the current common fishery policy of the EU. Regulations taking into account the interests of fisheries are being established in first place as part of the regulations for the uses of resource exploitation, pipelines and submarine cables as well as the generation of power (see Chapter 3.2, 3.3 and 3.5). Fisheries shall be taken into account with these uses particularly, p.26

. Il-existe-un-zonage-dans-le-document, La pêche a des (petits) secteurs réservés (Marine area reserved for fisheries). La prise en compte des zones de fonctionnalités halieutiques (frayères, nourrieceries) et la dépendance de la pêtite pêche à l'égard de la zone côtière est soulignée, p.101

, Die Fischerei in Nord-und Ostsee sowie an Binnen-gewässern soll erhalten und weiterentwickelt werden. Dabei ist dem Anliegen der langfristigen Sicherung der Erträge und des Erhalts der Fischarten und-bestände und des Ökosystems besonders Rechnung zu tragen. Die Fischerei soll bei der Abwägung mit anderen Nutzungen im Meeres-und Küstenbereich eine angemessene Bedeutung erhalten, p.96

, Die Voraussetzungen für eine nachhaltige Küstenfischerei sollen unter dem Aspekt der Existenzsicherung, der Förderung einer traditionellen, maritimen Wirtschaftsform und wegen ihrer Bedeutung für das maritime Landschaftsbild und den Tourismus gesichert und weiterentwickelt werden. Die für die Küstenfischerei bedeutsamen Fanggebiete sollen von konkurrierenden Nutzungen und Beeinträchtigungen freigehalten werden, cf. 3.2.1.05)

E. , Il est signalé (p. 36) : "Permanent stationary constructions (wind parks, wave power stations, aquaculture farms) that creates obstruction for bottom trawling, except the technical means for navigation and military marine surveillance, may not be erected". La pêche est indiquée dans la légende de la carte générale ("important fishing areas for sea bottom trawling" ; lisibilité peu claire sur la carte) et l'ensemble de l'espace maritime est considéré comme important pour le chalutage pélagique. L'activité de pêche aux filets est cartographiée dans l'état des lieux mais elle n'apparaît pas sur la carte générale. A noter : ils distinguent les "areas of priority interest

, la pêche se déroule dans la ZEE moins les zones fermées pour la conservation et l'énergie. La pêche ne figure pas sur la carte générale (ni sur aucune carte d'ailleurs). De même, il est indiqué dans l'usage actuel de la mer à propos de la pêche, p.34

, 39 : carte de densité de navires de pêches en 2014 (données AIS). P. 54 une carte sur la pêche (réglementation) et p. 55 une carte générale sur l'activité (VMS), sur le document de 2006 cf, pp.36-76

, carte des zones de pêches en 2011 (données AIS ou VMS), vol.46, p.72, 2013.

E. , Il existe un géoportail (mis.marinemanagement.org.uk). P.163 : carte données VMS navires de plus de 15 mètres engins actifs, en heures de pêches sur 2007-2010. P.164 : données du projet Fishermap. P.168 informations sur les nourriceries et frayères. On fait le constat que la diversité des types de pêche ainsi que la complexité de prévoir font que l'établissement d'une planification pour les secteur des pêches est délicate : "The lack of uniformity and stakeholder consensus regarding fisheries data combined with the difficulties in predicting the future of fisheries, makes formulating prescriptive marine plan policies for this sector a challenge. The Marine Management Organisation will continue to work closely with the fishing sector

, Policy S-FISH-2: Proposals that may have significant adverse impacts on access to, or within, sustainable fishing or aquaculture sites must demonstrate that they will, in order of preference: a) avoid, b) minimise, c) mitigate significant adverse impacts, d) if it is not possible to mitigate the significant adverse impacts, proposals should state the case for proceeding, cartes des zones de pêches (données VMS pour les navires de plus de 15 mètres, p.87, 2011.

, Spatial information such as ScotMap and maps of spawning and nursery grounds can help determine where the important fishing grounds are but, owing to the fact fishing may change over time, ongoing consultation will be essential to obtain up-to-date information. The effects of development in the long-and short-term should be considered as should the cumulative impact of developments in the area, cartes de la valeur monétaire et du nombre de navires, uniquement pour les plus de 15 m entre 2009 et 2011 (données ScotMap), p.132

, From a Scottish fishing fleet of just over 2,020 licensed vessels in 2013, more than a quarter were over 10 metres, with approximately 1500 of the vessels fishing in the inshore area of 0-6 nautical miles predominantly using static gear. In total, the combined fleet employed 4,992 fishermen, Existing fishing opportunities and activities are safeguarded wherever possible, p.44

E. , This plan includes a displacement focussed safeguarding policy that supports this sector, however, the availability of fishing activity data in inshore waters is a limiting factor in understanding and demonstrating the importance of different fishing grounds and enabling marine planning to develop more targeted and spatial safeguarding policies for fisheries. FIS_01 encourages the sector to work with relevant public authorities and other interested parties to identify important fishing grounds so that they can be taken account of in a strategic and systematic way that supports the coexistence of fishing with other sectors, et 225). Dans la légende de la carte, il est indiqué :"For the future, plans are in hand to work with the Welsh fishing industry to collate data more systematically and regularly over various spatial scales using electronic recording (iVMS) and the datasets will be updated more frequently, p.220

, une carte fait apparaître différents secteurs interdits à la pêche ou à certaines activités de pêche, AM-AB-27 0 0 Dans le document de zonage, p.41

, Il est indiqué en annexe (p. 194) que les données concernent l'année 2010 et uniquement la pêcherie de homards spatialisée à l'aide de polygones. Les données sont traitées dans un SIG et à l'aide d'un modèle d, AM-BE-28 1 1 1 0 0 Deux cartes sur la pêche, p.19

, et à suivre) mais rien n'est prévu d'un point de vue spatial, La pêche figure bien dans les objectifs, p.48

, et à suivre) mais rien n'est prévu d'un point de vue spatial, La pêche figure bien dans les objectifs, p.48

, The Central Coast Marine Plan includes spatial zones with associated management direction, and aspatial management direction for the following marine activities, uses and values: (?) marine fishery economy

, AM-CA-33 0 0 Même chose que les trois autres (cf. ci-dessus)

A. , Les pêches sont inscrites à travers des "valued socio-economic components (VSEC)". Ces VSEC sont identifiées par les communautés au regard de facteurs culturels et autres, vol.12, 10211.

, Il y a bien des objectifs spécifiques dans le domaine des pêches mais ils ne sont pas spatialisés, p.136

, Il est considéré que la pêche se déroule partout mais il se dégage des nuances en fonction "d'aptitudes". P. 92-93 : zones avec indice d'aptitude pour les activités de pêche. P. 44-50 : des cartes des zones de pêche sont présentées pour les principales espèces. P. 169 : on explique que ces zones sont compilées dans un modèle et sont pondérées à dire d, AM-ME-36 2 2 0 0 1 Cartes de la répartition des espèces

, AM-ME-37 2 2 0 0 1 Répartition des espèces. Même chose que ci-dessus, p.71

, AM-ME-38 2 2 0 0 1 Répartition des espèces. Même chose. Le I.C.6 (caractérisation) est intégralement consacré à la pêche

, It is important to remember that the final maps convey relative importance of fisheries activity, and due to north-south stratification, it is possible to have an area of 'high' importance south of Cape Cod that in absolute terms is less than an area of 'low' or 'medium' activity north of Cape Cod. Spatial scales also play a critical role when interpreting these results. The areal units used to report and aggregate these data are coarse. Concentrated commercial fisheries can occur in locations that exist at finer spatial scales than can be accurately detected by these data. Conversely, concentrated fishing in an isolated portion of an areal unit will influence the value for the entire areal unit, AM-US-39 2 2 2 0 1 Cartographies réalisées à l'aide des données Logbooks (VTR). Les VMS ne sont pas considérées : "In addition to the commercial fisheries activity analysis, the group discussed the value of including vessel monitoring system (VMS) data in the assessment, vol.1, p.10

A. , A two-part approach was taken to map fishing activity for inclusion in the Ocean SAMP document. First, commercial and recreational fishing activity was characterized and mapped through qualitative input from fishermen. In a series of interviews and meetings that took place in 20082009, Rhode Island commercial and recreational fishermen were asked to indicate, on nautical charts, areas where they fish (see Appendix B for detailed methodology). Second, commercial fishing activity was characterized and mapped through analysis of quantitative fisheries-dependent data collected from 1998-2008. As a means of monitoring fisheries activity, NMFS requires commercial fishermen with federally-permitted groundfish, scallop, and monkfish vessels to submit one Vessel Trip Report (VTR) for each fishing trip. On each report, the fisherman reports the location of that trip as one set of coordinates (latitude/longitude or Loran). These maps were created by aggregating the VTRs of all RI-based vessels using these gear types from 1998-2008 as a set of point data, vol.1, pp.424-425

, La pêche est cartographiée p. 36-38 de la part. 5. App. B. et p. 55-57 de la part. 5 App. C. P. 36 (App. B) : "The Area of Greatest Importance to Fisheries represents the top 10% contour, while the Area of Great Importance to Fisheries represents the top 20% contour. The contours delineated the social value of the fishing grounds, and are derived from data provided by individual fishermen who identified specific areas that were important to them for each sector in which they participated, Areas Important to Fisheries" are: 1. areas of high catch

, WDFW used three general approaches to identify areas of relatively high, medium, and low use intensities: 1. Fishery logbook data and percentile rankings: Each hexagon was ranked based on the number of intersecting fishing sets or tows and scored using three bins: a, logbooks et entretiens? Les données concernent un cumul de plusieurs années (les années diffèrent en fonction des type de pêche), pp.2-85

, Interviews with fishery participants and managers: Some fisheries have no logbook or other data that records the locations of fishing. In such cases, WDFW consulted with fishery participants and managers to determine intensity levels and footprints of select fisheries

, L'ensemble sert à cadrer les démarches de PSM à une échelle infra (Etats). Les données utilisées sont les données VMS (avec un seuil à 4 ou 5 noeuds), pour les années, Il s'agit d'un document général associé à un géoportail, 2006.

A. , Action 3-Improve collaboration for the conservation of essential fish habitat."), qui sont en fait des objectifs pour mieux comprendre etc. l'activité, alors qu'il y en a 6 pour les EMR, orientés vers leur développement, notamment : "Action 4-Use the Data Portal to enhance access to data, environmental reports, and proposed offshore wind development activities, Les cartographies sont réalisée sà partir des données Logbooks (VTR) et VMS (moins de 4 ou 5 noeuds), p.61

, Annexe

, Chapitre 1 : Il était une fois la planification spatiale marine : revue critique des expériences menées à travers le monde??????????????

, Chapitre 2 : Un alignement sur les intérêts dominants : le rôle joué par les géo-technologies sur la place accordée aux pêches dans la planification spatiale marine?????????, p.31

, Plus que des cartes : une alternative pour repositionner les pêches et les pêcheurs dans la planification spatiale marine?????????????????????????, Chapitre, vol.3, p.55

P. La and . Théorie, , vol.55

. , Question : renverser la perspective ?, Les pêches, prises dans l'étau des soutenabilités?????????????????, vol.56

, La situation des pêches en France métropolitaine????????????????, p.62