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Evaluation de l'efficacité des Aires Marines Protégées comme outil de restauration des ressources marines et de gestion des stocks halieutiques : l'expérience ouest africaine

Abstract : This thesis focuses on the study of the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) as restoration tools of marine resources and fish stocks management in tropical West Africa. The study involves three MPAs. The first one is the Bamboung MPA, a marine reserve located in estuarine areas (with marine influence), closed to fishing since 2004. The second is the Urok Islands MPA established in 2005 and located in the biosphere Reserve of Bijagos archipelago in the coastal part of Guinea-Bissau. It is divided into three areas and fishing is allowed there with a fishing pressure becoming stronger from the central area to peripheral area. The third MPA is the Banc d‟Arguin National Marine Park located along the coast of Mauritania. It was created in 1976 and fishing activities are restricted. Many AMP were evaluated worldwide and the results are in the main part positive. In tropical zones, the variability of environmental parameters affects the spatial and temporal organization of fish assemblage. Therefore, the MPA establishment in a tropical zone has raised questions about their effectiveness inrelation to the influence of environmental parameters. According to the AMP, spatial or temporal approach will be used to answer questions. Comparison analysis will be used. The analysis of biological data comes after those of the physicochemical parameters that show strong seasonal variability in each MPA. This result justifies the choice of seasonal analysis of biological data in order to minimize the influence of environmental variations.Regarding the Bamboung MPA, the results of global approach clearly confirm that it is an effective tool for restoring marine resources. The seasonal approach shows this role in cold season, but not in hot and wet seasons. In 9 years of protection, the Bamboung MPA contributed to attract big fish in the Bamboung bolon. The spillover effect in Bamboung MPA is not clearly demonstrated according to our results. A downward trend of biological indicators according to the distance to the MPA has been observed especially in hot season and wet season. Similarly, the analysis of indicators related to reproduction does not show that the Bamboung MPA improve fish reproduction. Regarding Urok Islands MPA and Banc d’Arguin National marine Park, the results do not confirm that these AMP are fish stock management tools (improved yields of fishing activities and fish reproduction). However, for Urok islands MPA the observed trends suggest a biomass concentration in the central area, an equilibrium role played by the intermediate area and a role of fish biomass provider of the peripheral area. For Banc d’Arguin National Marine Parc, the inside area seems to contribute to the enrichment of the external area by transferring fish biomass. Non-specific results could be explained by the small data collected in the MPAs. So the idea to conduct a short-term biological monitoring and to analyze reproduction indicators in population level has been considered for the three MPA to find clear results on their role in the management of fish stocks.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, December 19, 2018 - 1:13:08 PM
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Oumar Sadio. Evaluation de l'efficacité des Aires Marines Protégées comme outil de restauration des ressources marines et de gestion des stocks halieutiques : l'expérience ouest africaine. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015BRES0090⟩. ⟨tel-01960377⟩

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