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Multifonctionnalisation de surface polymère pour le recrutement, l’adhésion et la différenciation des progéniteurs endothéliaux

Abstract : Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in the world, killing more than 17 million people a year. This eloquent figure will increase to 23.4 million deaths in 2030, according to the WHO. These diseases are associated with a narrowing of the lumen of the blood vessels that may cause partial or complete occlusion of the vessel. The treatment most often used is a surgical treatment designed to create a bridge that will bypass the obstructed section or an injured section.Currently, the most used conduits for transplants are autologous vessels, namely the saphenous vein or the internal thoracic artery. Only these substitutes can only be used as a replacement if they are healthy. The alternative to autologous vessels is the use of synthetic substitutes. Due to a certain lack of biocompatibility of these synthetic grafts, after only a few years, a phenomenon of thrombosis sets in; the absence of endothelial cells (ECs) that cover the interior of the substitute.The key point here lies in the manufacture of a material capable of providing the ECs with a favorable environment for their adhesion and proliferation to allow the generation of an endothelium within a synthetic substitute. In vivo, cells capable of colonizing such materials are endothelial progenitor cells, these cells are capable of differentiating into mature endothelial cells and possess a higher proliferation capacity than mature cells. They are able to repair the vessels and can, therefore, be targeted to be recruited in situ and thus endothelialize the biomaterial.It is in this context that we have chosen to chemically modify the surface of a model material, a PET film with four innovative active ingredients selected for their ability to induce cell adhesion or differentiation to allow regeneration. an endothelium on the surface of the material.This project has initially made it possible to develop a protocol for grafting active ingredients covalently with a reproducible density and in a microstructured manner using photolithography. Here, the GRGDS and GHM peptides were grafted to enhance cell adhesion, the latter being specific to endothelial progenitor cells. The SFLLRN peptide and sitagliptin have been grafted to induce or accelerate the differentiation of EPCs into mature ECs. All surfaces have been characterized to validate covalent grafting and to know the density of grafted bioactive molecules.On the other hand, with a thorough characterization of EPCs from umbilical cord blood, some characteristic genes of stem and endothelial cells were followed by immunofluorescence and RT-qPCR to determine their state of differentiation. This work will have been possible only after determining which reference genes we could use to study the phenotype of three cell types namely, CD34 + mononuclear cells, EPCs and mature ECs (saphenous vein extract). [...] As a general conclusion, this project proves that surface modification of substitutes with bioactive molecules is essential to make the material attractive and to regenerate an endothelium on the surface of it. This work has helped us emphasize the importance of understanding the behavior of EPCs and their kinetics of differentiation for their use in vascular engineering.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, December 19, 2018 - 10:23:06 AM
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Caroline Royer. Multifonctionnalisation de surface polymère pour le recrutement, l’adhésion et la différenciation des progéniteurs endothéliaux. Polymères. Université de Bordeaux; Université Laval (Québec, Canada), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0169⟩. ⟨tel-01960020⟩

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