Résistances/sensibilisations aux anti-CD20 (rituximab) dans les lymphomes diffus à grandes cellules B (DLBCL)

Abstract : Diffuse large B cell Lymphomas (DLBCL) are the most aggressive and heterogeneous biological and clinical form of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in adults. Although more than 50% of patients can be cured with standard therapy R-CHOP (combining the CHOP chemotherapy to the anti-CD20 as rituximab) 30 to 40% of patients exhibit primary refractory disease or relapse after initial response to therapy, determining morbidities and significant mortality related to the limited number of treatment options. The aim of this thesis was focussed on therapeutic resistances of these lymphomas, notably those of rituximab. In the first part of this thesis, we have evaluated the role of endogenous factor signaling, the neurotrophins (NTs), in DLBCL cell survival and sensitivity to the cytotoxicity of rituximab. We showed first that a high expression of neurotrophines (NGF, BDNF) and their high (Trk) and low (p75NTR) affinity receptors was often found in tumor B cells of DLBCL patients. Results obtained in vitro, on human cell lines of DLBCL, but also in vivo (xenografts) showed evidence of a survival BDNF/TrkB/p75NTR axis that can interfere with the efficacy of immunotherapy. This axis promotes survival of tumor cells and may also participate in rituximab resistance in regulating CD20 expression at the surface of exosomes. Indeed, these microvesicles, secreted in large amounts by the tumoral B cells, express the CD20 and would be involved in the therapeutic escape acting as decoy receptors upon rituximab exposure. In the second part of the thesis, we evaluated in DLBCL the potential role of new oncogenic targets, PHBs proteins and the initiation factor of translation eIF4A. To this end, we used one of their ligands, a synthetic flavagline named FL3. We showed that FL3 determines a strong apoptosis in vitro on DLBCL cell lines and in vivo on tumors induced in mice (xenografts). Our works have clarified the molecular mechanisms, demonstrating involvement of PHBs, in correlation with ERK1/2 activation, and eIF4F complex formation and activity. Preliminary data obtained in patient biopsies showed a high expression of PHB1 in tumor B cells that may be decisive for cell survival and patient outcome lymphomas.Overall, present results show evidence of new survival and rituximab escape mechanisms in DLBCL, that should allow to identify new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for alternative therapeutic options.
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Hafidha Bentayeb. Résistances/sensibilisations aux anti-CD20 (rituximab) dans les lymphomes diffus à grandes cellules B (DLBCL). Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LIMO0072⟩. ⟨tel-01957664⟩

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