Des Marocains pour fermer les mines : immigration et récession charbonnière dans le Nord-Pas-de-Calais (1945-1990)

Abstract : How were Moroccan workers utilised to close coal mines in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais ? This thesis answers this question by studying the economic history of coal mining in France, and migration policies. Such a historical sociology of migrations sees migration policies from the point of view of a firm -- and not of a state --, and of the agents who contributed to the recruitment, management and control of these migrant workers. As coal pits were being closed one by one, understanding the role of Moroccan workers requires to analyse both their professional trajectories and the slow historical process of disappearing of coal miners. Colonial context also weights heavily, raising the issues of the relationships between state institutions and companies on each shore of the Mediterranean Sea, and of the modalities of importation of racialist ideals and of practices of population management and control.This research is defined at the crossing of an economic sociology of the firm and of state regulation of an economic sector, and a historical sociology of work, migration policies and the working class. In order to understand the way a big company implemented, on the long run, a recruitment policy of immigrant workers, one needs to analyse the transformations of productive systems, the evolutions of the firm's workforce policy, and the individual trajectories of a segmented and hierarchised professional group. Sources are constituted of archives of the Houillères de Nord-Pas-de-Calais and of Charbonnages de France, of archives of the governments coal policies, of writings and debates amongst a small group of engineers-economists (Corps des Mines) who contributed to the piloting of coal recession, and of carreer files of mine workers. Two types of quantification are implemented: from the firm's administrative and workforce policy, and from a sample of 400 career files (200 Moroccans, 200 non Moroccans). From the nationalisation of the whole mining sector to the closing of the last pit in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais, this history manifests the relationships between economic policies, the evolution of French capitalism, and the concrete modalities of the construction, weakening and disappearing of an important segment of the working class.
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Antonin Perdoncin. Des Marocains pour fermer les mines : immigration et récession charbonnière dans le Nord-Pas-de-Calais (1945-1990). Sociologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLN042⟩. ⟨tel-01957590⟩



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