Modification des traits d'histoire de vie au cours de l’hybridation et analyse des mécanismes moléculaires sous- jacents chez les parasites plathelminthes du genre Schistosoma

Abstract : Global changes contribute in modifying species geographical distribution. New interactions between species that have never been in contact before can potentially lead to atypical cases of reproduction, including hybridization. This phenomenon can have strong epidemiological consequences as it can potentially lead to the genesis of hybrid pathogens. The combination of genetic material of distinct species can confer increased capacities to the offspring (hybrid vigor or heterosis), eventually leading to adaptive changes and the emergence of pathogens in non-endemic areas, making them an emerging global threat. This thesis work focuses on schistosomiasis, the second human parasitic disease after malaria and its recent emergence in Europe (Corsica, France). After the identification and genomic characterization of a hybrid parasite between two distinct agents of the disease, S. haematobium in humans and S. bovis in cattle, we conducted an integrative approach to characterize at several scales the invasive capacities and virulence of such parasites. Starting from the field, we set up an experimental evolution protocol aimed at generating first- and second-generation hybrids in the laboratory. We analysed life history trait modifications of these parasites as well as the molecular consequences (genomics and transcriptomics) of this "genomic clash" and we show that hybridization can be a major evolutionary force for parasites.
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Julien Kincaid Smith. Modification des traits d'histoire de vie au cours de l’hybridation et analyse des mécanismes moléculaires sous- jacents chez les parasites plathelminthes du genre Schistosoma. Parasitologie. Université de Perpignan, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PERP0028⟩. ⟨tel-01957582⟩

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