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Intégration d'oxydes fonctionnels pour applications en photonique

Abstract : 21st century stands out as a new numeric area, particularly due to the development of Internet of Things. The exceptional growth of produced, transmitted and stored data all around the world led to new emerging technologies such as silicon photonics. However, silicon has intrinsic limitations for photonic applications including indirect bandgap and centrosymmetry of its lattice.In parallel, functional oxides family exhibits an impressive panel of properties such as ferroelectricity or piezoelectricity. The epitaxial growth is the main limitation for their integration in silicon photonics. Indeed, the lattice mismatch between most of the oxides and silicon induces high defects density which strongly degrades their properties. Nevertheless, one of these oxides, Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), can be used for the lattice transition. The objectives of the PhD work was then to study the YSZ growth mechanisms and to determine its properties in integrated optics.First, the epitaxial growth of YSZ, using Pulsed-Laser Deposition (PLD), as well as the fabrication and characterization of photonics structures have been developed on sapphire substrate. We reported the role of substrate annealing before deposition, on the orientation and quality of YSZ thin film. The optimization of the epitaxial growth, and the development of a fabrication process, allowed the demonstration of YSZ-based waveguides with propagation losses as low as 2 dB/cm. We also characterized more complex passives structures, in particular ring resonators, micro-disks and Bragg filters. Furthermore, third-order optical nonlinear properties in YSZ waveguides were experimentally determined for the first time. The n2 value, obtained experimentally, is in agreement with theoretical calculation and is in the same order of magnitude than the value reported for silicon nitride SiN, a well-known nonlinear material.Due to lattice mismatch and thermal expansion coefficient difference, the growth of YSZ is expected to induce large strain in silicon, breaking its crystal centrosymmetry. Recent experimental and theoretical studies have demonstrated the possibility to exploit second-order optical nonlinear effects in strained silicon, usually vanishing in this material. To probe the strain distribution, seen by an optical mode propagating in a silicon waveguide, we developed an innovative Raman-based experimental technique for integrated optics. Even if typical phonons behaviors have been revealed, theoretical modeling of experimental data did not lead to strain values comparable to the simulation predictions and complementary studies are required.Finally, three approaches have been tested for the integration of YSZ in silicon photonics. The first and second one include the growth of YSZ on silicon waveguides, buried or not in a silica layer. The third one involves the fabrication of waveguides in a YSZ thin film, deposited on a flat silicon substrate. No strains in the silicon have been observed, justified by the silica interfacial layer between YSZ and silicon. Propagation losses of hybrid YSZ/Si waveguides, initially more than 250 dB/cm, have been reduced to 7.5 dB/cm thanks to YSZ growth optimization and an adapted waveguides geometry.
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Submitted on : Monday, December 17, 2018 - 1:42:08 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01957500, version 1


Guillaume Marcaud. Intégration d'oxydes fonctionnels pour applications en photonique. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS513⟩. ⟨tel-01957500⟩



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