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Fibrogenèse pulmonaire induite par la toxicité de la bléomycine et son point de départ sous-pleural

Abstract : Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (PF) is a rare and devastating disease without efficient treatment at this time. Idiopathic FP is characterized by accumulation of myofibroblasts and has a typical sub-pleural onset suggesting a role of the pleura in the disease. Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-ß1 induces transformation of pleural mesothelial cells (PMC) into active cells exhibiting myofibroblast phenotype. Heat shock proteins can act as regulator of the TGF-ß1 signaling. A role for caspase-1/IL-1ß axis has already been described in animal models of PF.The heat shock protein AlphaB-crystallin has been studied in PF at the PMC level and the importance of caspase-1/IL-1ß axis has been investigated specifically in lung structural cells in the context of bleomycin (BLM) toxicity.AlphaB-crystallin is overexpressed by PMC during idiopathic PF. Its inhibition in mice interferes with PMC transformation and subsequent migration in pleuro-pulmonary fibrosis. In BLM-induced PF in mice, caspase-1 is activated in sub-pleural areas. In vitro, caspase-1 has a crucial role in the transformation process of PMC. Activation of caspase-1 triggers fibrotic response in mice. In a second part, we show that a deglycosylated form of BLM, which failed to promote caspase-1 activation, is unable to trigger PF but stills have an anti-tumor activity. Deglyco-BLM does not induce pyroptosis, a caspase-1 dependent cell death, in alveolar epithelial cells.Our data suggest that AlphaB-crystallin and caspase-1/IL-1ß could represent interesting therapeutic targets in idiopathic as well as BLM-induced PF. We also bring a proof of concept for the use of deglyco-BLM as a less toxic alternative to BLM in cancer therapy.
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Olivier Burgy. Fibrogenèse pulmonaire induite par la toxicité de la bléomycine et son point de départ sous-pleural. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université de Bourgogne, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016DIJOS009⟩. ⟨tel-01957432⟩

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