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Avancées en chimie de coordination des phosphines nitroaromatiques : synthèse et chimie supramoléculaire de dérivés alkyl - aryl-carbo-benzènes

Abstract : The manuscript is divided into six chapters and two independent parts, the first part being dedicated to the investigation of the effect of nitro substituents on aromatic phosphine ligands (L). A series of (N-phenyl-benzimidazol-1-yl) diphenylphosphines substituted with 1 to 3 nitro groups at different positions of the N-phenyl and benzimidazolyl cores, were synthesized, and compared with the non-nitrated parent and cationic N-methyl-benzimidazolium counterpart. In the corresponding trans-L2RhICl(CO) complexes, prepared in two steps and fully characterized, moderate but systematic variations of the C=O IR stretching frequency and 103Rh NMR chemical shift provide an empirical quantification of regio-specific effects of the nitro-substituents on the global donating character of the P-ligand. Dinuclear (µ-CO)(LRhCl)2 side-products were shown to give unique clathrate crystals with a high content (6.7:1) of dichloromethane solvate. The second part, gathering five chapters, concerns the study of new types of highly p-conjugated carbo-mers, primarily devised to palliate the limiting poor solubility of the aromatic C18 carbo-benzene core. The synthesis and characterization of reference hexaaryl-carbo-benzenes are revisited. An improved 12-step synthetic route to the long known hexaphenyl derivative and p-bis-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl homologue is described. Both carbo-benzenes were fully characterized, in particular by X-ray diffraction analysis and electrochemistry. Their use in organic photovoltaic solar-cells was found to be hampered by their very low solubility preventing the formation of high quality thin films. The third chapter focusses on a series of p-dialkyl-tetraphenyl-carbo-benzenes with two aliphatic chains R = CnH2n+1, n = 2, 4, 8, 14, 20. The synthetic route based on nucleophilic addition of RMgBr to a key [6]pericyclynedione ultimately led to both the dialkyl- and reduced mono-alkyl-carbo-benzenes, the reduction process being found suppressed by using a RLi/CeCl3 reactant. A dramatic enhancement of solubility in chlorinated solvents was observed for n = 8. A direct p-p stacking of C18 rings, driven by aliphatic dispersions forces, could be evidenced for the first time in the X-ray crystal structure of the bis-tetradecyl derivative, giving experimental support to the existence of the a-graphityne 3D carbon allotrope (putative carbo-mer of graphite). The fourth chapter describes two trialkoxyarylethynyl-tetraphenyl-carbo-benzenes and the study of the mesogen properties of one of them. A columnar rectangular mesophase, evidenced at 115 oC by DSC, POM and PXRD analyses, opens prospects for a systematic study of related liquid crystals. The 3D lattice constants are consistent with 2D STM images of the carbo-mesogen deposited on HOPG. The fifth chapter reports on three skeletal carbo-mers of bis- and ter-phenyls, devised for their acquaintance with OPP or OPE molecular wires. A carbo-terphenyl was found to exhibit a very low first reduction potential (-0.39 V/SCE), unprecedented in the carbo-mer series. In the last chapter, new types of carbo-mers are exemplified: carbo-barrelenes and carbo-stilbenes. Their preparation relies on the addition of triyne dinucleophiles to either one or two equivalents of a [6]pericyclyne(di)one precursor. In the tricyclic series, two non-macroaromatic carbo-barrelenes and one partially reduced bis-butatrienic derivative, both containing two sp3-C bridgeheads, were found to be sufficiently stable to allow full characterization, including by crystallography. The cage-ability of a carbo-barrelene toward small molecules such as NH4+, albeit not clearly proven yet, was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The carbo-stilbene product was evidenced as an unseparated mixture of two isomers. In the absence of crystal of suitable quality for crystallography, they were assigned to the cis and trans diastereoisomers on the basis of 1H NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations.
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Chongwei Zhu. Avancées en chimie de coordination des phosphines nitroaromatiques : synthèse et chimie supramoléculaire de dérivés alkyl - aryl-carbo-benzènes. Coordination chemistry. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30281⟩. ⟨tel-01955747⟩

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