A simulation based approach to individual vaccination behavior

Abstract : We tackle the issue of including individual vaccination decisions in epidemiological models. We draw on the example of Measles vaccination, and we focus on strategic interactions and anticipatory behavior. We contribute to a fuller account of such behaviors by developing a modeling approach intended as a tool for practitioners and theorists.In Chapter 1, we show how the interplay between individual anticipatory vaccination decisions and the otherwise biological dynamics of a disease may lead to the emergence of recurrent patterns. We consider a Measles-like outbreak, rational and far-sighted individuals, vital dynamics, and waning vaccine efficacy. This chapter illustrates the versatility of our approach. For comparison, we provide results for individuals with adaptive behavior.In Chapter 2, we investigate the effect of anticipatory behavior in a scenario where Measles vaccination becomes mandatory. When mandatory vaccination is announced in advance, we show that individuals may alter their vaccination behavior, thus causing an increase in prevalence before Measles is ultimately eradicated. These transition effects lead to non negligible welfare differences between generations. We consider an anti-vaccinationist subpopulation with a higher vaccination cost, and exhibit scenarios where anti-vaccinationists are among those who benefit the most from mandatory vaccination.In Chapter 3, we discuss whether coalitions of vaccinating individuals can account for the relatively high vaccination coverages observed in developed countries. We explain why and how retaliation concepts usually found in repeated games can be used in the context of vaccination, even though individuals vaccinate only once. This allows us to model how vaccinating individuals might retaliate against those who refuse vaccination. We show that retaliation threats can sustain vaccination where it would otherwise be suboptimal for individuals.
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Julien Flaig. A simulation based approach to individual vaccination behavior. Economics and Finance. Université de Lyon, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE2056⟩. ⟨tel-01955409⟩

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