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Prévalence et diversité génétique des virus respiratoires au Cameroun

Abstract : Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are recognized as an important cause of morbidity, mortality and hospitalization among children in developing countries. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the main cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants, young children and the elderly. Identified in 2001, Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a new paramyxovirus. Studies have shown the co-circulation of the subgroups of these two viruses with domination of one of the sub-groups according to the geographical zones and according of years. These two viruses encode two major surface glycoproteins, the highly conserved fusion F protein and the highly variable attachment G protein. Data are still limited in sub-Saharan African countries on prevalence, seasonality and genetic characterization of these two respiratory viruses. In Cameroon, these two viruses have been described only once (5.7 and 5% for HRSV and HMPV respectively) in patients with influenza-like illness in 2012.Objective: This study reports the prevalence, seasonality and the genetic variability of HRSV and HMPV strains in Cameroonian children for 3 consecutive epidemic seasons (September 2011-October 2014). Moreover, the genetic diversity of other respiratory viruses detected during this work is presented as a secondary objective.Methods: A prospective surveillance was conducted to identify inpatient and outpatient children less than 15 years with respiratory symptoms ≤ 5 days. The nasopharyngeal samples were tested for 17 respiratory viruses using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Viral distribution and demographic data were analyzed statistically. Positive samples for HRSV and HMPV were amplified by semi-nested polymerize chain reaction and then partially sequenced at the G gene. Phylogenetic analyzes were performed on the partial nucleotide and protein sequences of the G gene.Results: From September 2011 to October 2014, 822 children under 15 years were enrolled in the study. At least one virus was identified in each of 72.6% (577/822) of children, 31.7% (189/597) of whom were co-detections; 28.5% (226/822) were positive for human adenovirus, 21.4% (176/822) for influenza virus, 15.5% (127.822) for rhinovirus/enterovirus, 9.4% (77/822) for bocavirus, 9% (74/822) for HRSV, 8.2% (67/822) for human coronavirus, 6.2% (50/822) for human parainfluenzavirus, and 3.9% (32/822) for HMPV. HRSV infection was more frequent in children under 2 years (70.3%, 52/74) and hospitalized participants (70.3%, 52/74). While HRSV showed a seasonal pattern with circulation from September to December, sporadic cases of HMPV were detected throughout the year. HRSV-A (19.1%, 9/47) and HRSV-B (17%; 8/47) were observed relatively at the same frequency with (63.8%, 30/47) codetections of HRSV-A/HRSV-B. HMPV-A (71.4%; 10/14) was predominant compared to HMPV-B (28.6; 4/14). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the HRSV strains of the study are grouped within subgroup NA-1 (for HRSV-A) and BA-9 (for HRSV-B). Cameroonian HMPV strains are grouped among the members of genotype A2b (for HMPV-A), B1 and B2 (for HMPV-B).Conclusion: This study suggests that about 70% of ARI recorded in children in Cameroon are caused by viruses. The present study is also the first report on the genetic variability of the G gene of HRSV and HMPV strains in the region. Although this work partially fills gaps for some information, additional studies are required to clarify the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary pattern of respiratory viruses in sub-Saharan Africa in general and more particularly in Cameroon.
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Sebastien Kenmoe. Prévalence et diversité génétique des virus respiratoires au Cameroun. Virologie. Normandie Université; Université de Yaoundé I, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NORMC417⟩. ⟨tel-01954808⟩

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