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Démographie et réponses adaptatives des populations végétales aux changements environnementaux

Abstract : Mediterranean region is a biodiversity hot-spot with a high endemism rate and is classified among the areas most sensitive to climate change. Deep understanding of demography and evolution following these changes is a necessity for species conservation. During this thesis, two rare Mediterranean plant species have been studied, Centaurea corymbosa and Brassica insularis, using recent mathematical models to analyse long term demographic datasets (22 and 18 years). In the first part of this thesis, matrix projection models have been used to analyse spatio-temporal variation in population growth rate in C. corymbosa. Major climatic parameters that impact population growth rate and survival, flowering and fecundity have been identified. A population viability analysis has been performed under various climatic scenarios. In a second part, an analysis of the population ability of C. corymbosa to response to these climatic changes has been performed using integral projection models. Temporal variation of life-history traits showed that the realized flowering strategy varied with climatic conditions following the same direction than the optimal flowering strategy. It can thus be concluded that the studied populations can adapt to climatic changes. Finally, capture-recapture models have been applied on the Brassica insularis dataset to analyse the effect of plant detectability on demographic parameter estimations. Survival probabilities obtained with the classical approach are lower than the ones estimated using the CR models. However, the parameters estimated using both methods are highly correlated, except for one population where individual identification is problematic. Results of this thesis are linked to some considerations in conservation biology of plants, particularly in link to their ability to respond to climatic changes.
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Asma Hadjou Belaid. Démographie et réponses adaptatives des populations végétales aux changements environnementaux. Biologie végétale. Université Montpellier, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTG034⟩. ⟨tel-01954646⟩

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