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Metabolic characterisation of skeletal muscle stem cells in distinct physiological states

Abstract : Muscle stem (satellite, MuSC) cells acquire different cell states as they need to pass from quiescence to proliferation and differentiation to support muscle homeostasis. Some of these changes are accompanied by changes in energy demands. However, it is currently unclear whether modulation in the energy metabolism pathways can in turn influence the commitment to a specific cell state. A central focus of my thesis project is to characterise the energy metabolism pathways that act in the different phases of lineage progression and how their modulation can influence the state of the cell. We show that quiescent cells have low energetic demands and OxPhos is perturbed during aging, as well as in cells that survive after death. We also compared different proliferative states, both during muscle growth and regeneration, and our results indicate a surprising difference in their metabolic requirements. Gene expression profiling and bioenergetics analysis showed that foetal cells have a low respiration demand and rely mostly on glycolysis when compared to regenerating MuSCs. Furthermore, we show distinct requirements for peroxisomal and mitochondrial mediated fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in myogenic cells. Altering peroxisomal but not mitochondrial FAO promotes early differentiation of satellite cells. Experiments using acute muscle injury and pharmacological block show differential requirements for these organelles during regeneration. These observations indicate that changes in the cell state of muscle stem cells lead to significant changes in metabolic requirements and altering specific metabolic pathways can have an impact on myogenic cell fate and the regeneration process.
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Francesca Pala. Metabolic characterisation of skeletal muscle stem cells in distinct physiological states. Cellular Biology. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066607⟩. ⟨tel-01954177⟩

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