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Caractérisation des nanomédecines pour la clinique : développement de méthodes évaluant les interactions nanoparticules-protéines plasmatiques pour une application en contrôle qualité

Abstract : Nanomedicines injected intravenously interact with surrounding biological elements in the bloodstream. Among these interactions, those with blood proteins turn out to be very important regarding the becoming of the nanovectors. They acquire a biological identity upon interaction with proteins which influence their path to target tissue and cells. The understanding and mastering of these phenomena remains a crucial issue in nanomedicine development. Methods allowing an easier study of these interactions are needed. The aim of these PhD thesis was to develop such methods, usable on a routine basis in a clinical context, allowing a fine characterization of nanomedicines and their interactions with plasmatic proteins. This PhD is part of the project “Nano Innovation for CancEr” (NICE, BPI France), gathering a consortium of industrials partners developing clinical nanomedicines.In a first time, a bibliographic study about current methods used for such a characterization could identify two major limitations. (i) On one hand, the complexity of current available methods for which the equipment specificity and required expertise prevent their use at a large scale. (ii) On the other hand, properties today characterized on a daily basis (size, morphology, charge) are too rough compared to the sharpness of biological processes who interact and “analyze” the nanovectors introduced in biological media. These two aspects are limiting a safer development of nanomedicines as well as a good reproducibility of their action in clinics.During this thesis, we developed methods allowing a beginning of answer to the wide problematic of nanomedicine characterization. A method for a high throughput analysis of complement activation by nanomedicines via 2D immunoelectrophoresis was developed and validated. It allows the reproducible analysis of protein C3 fragmentation. This method is applicable to the study of the impact of nanoparticles in human serum and their degree of action on the complement cascade. This method has been used for a more fundamental study on complement activation pathways activated according to the architecture of nanoparticles surface.A second method for the study of complement activation produced by nanoparticles has been proposed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). A chip allowing an automated screening of complement activation has been developed. This method was compared to other methods for complement activation study (2D immunoelectrophoresis, ELISA) and allowed the identification of bias during nanomedicine evaluation.Finally, an original approach for the characterization of nanomedicine’s surface architecture using proteins as molecular probes has been proposed. In this method, capillary electrophoresis has been used as analytical tool to allow a direct analysis of sample without preliminary nanoparticle removal step.Methods developed during this work can be applied to the characterization of nanomedicines and proposed as routine methods for quality control. A development of nanomedicines characterization in this direction constitute one of the lever for a more fruitful translation of nanomedicines entering in clinical phase.
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Jean-Baptiste Coty. Caractérisation des nanomédecines pour la clinique : développement de méthodes évaluant les interactions nanoparticules-protéines plasmatiques pour une application en contrôle qualité. Biotechnologie. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS432⟩. ⟨tel-01953458⟩

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