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Invasion du capricorne asiatique Anoplophora glabripennis : génétique, traits d’histoire de vie et écologie

Abstract : The Asian longhorned Beetle Anoplophora glabripennis provides a good example of insects that benefited from international trade from Asia. It partly invaded North America, where it has been present since the 1990s, and Europe where its presence was detected in the early 2000s. This highly polyphagous species develops in urban trees and can cause their death, highlighting the importance of its management. The aim of this thesis was to use a multidisciplinary approach to study the invasion of A. glabripennis in order to bring new elements to the global understanding of biological invasions. I therefore first wanted to retrace its invasion route through the world. Secondly, I sought to know whether some of its biological characteristics had contributed to the success of its invasion. Finally, I addressed the question of the ecological impact of A. glabripennis by focusing on the alterations of the xylophagous fauna that its presence could have caused. The results obtained in this thesis revealed a complex invasion which includes several introductions as well as a bridgehead scenario between North America and Europe. It also appeared that some traits of the species contributed to shaping its distribution pattern. Notably, its resistance to thermal stress probably favored its installation in various climates. Furthermore, the natural dispersion of A. glabripennis seems very limited, but my results indicated that the species is not limited by its physiological capacities to disperse. Finally, the preliminary study of the invaded fauna did not reveal any effects of the species on the other Ceramycidae for the moment. In the light of the other cases of invasion documented, the case of A. glabripennis highlights the diversity of the characteristics of species becoming invasive, and confirms the difficulty of drawing a typical portrait.
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Marion Javal. Invasion du capricorne asiatique Anoplophora glabripennis : génétique, traits d’histoire de vie et écologie. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Orléans, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017ORLE2034⟩. ⟨tel-01951721⟩

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