La méthode des saisons climatiques : stratégie passive de conception architecturale de bâtiments basse consommation énergétique en climat très chaud

Abstract : The last 25 years have been ground-breaking in architectural design on low energy consumption in cold climate, mainly in north-western cultures. For an architect today, the method to design a passive house in cold weather and the choice of the Architectural Actions (AA), are clearly established. When the question comes to how to build a passive house in warmer, hot, and very hot climates, the strategies arepoor and often results of a combination of western strategies with a local relook. From several visits in MiddleEast countries, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, we concluded that the strategy for low consumption houses is not established yet and poorly grasped. The lack of training on low energy consumption in hot climate and the low price of energy, force designers and owners to rely on over usage of air-conditioning systems as measures to catch up on poor bioclimatic design. This method proposes a new approach on bioclimatic designfor hot climates from an architect point of view. It is based on a Cooling Degrees Days (CDD) and Heating Degrees Days (HDD) approach, a state of art of contemporary architecture and professional experience. Localclimates are classified according to the energy-hunger of six situations of the exterior temperature during night/day : cold/cold, cold/cool, cool/warm, cold/hot, cool/hot, and hot/hot as CDD and HDD of the twelve month ofthe year. A group of days on one of those situations will be called “climatic season”. In parallel we will create two main “climatic situations”: people keep the house closed to the exterior or opened to the exterior. We will associate passive strategies to these two differents ways to live in the house: “cold” and “hot” to a closed houseand “cool” and “warm” to a house opened up to the exterior. This method allows classifying any climate in theworld under these six climatic seasons. Our climate classification can now be associated to different strategies that we will call “architectural actions” as house is closed or opened. We could already start to design a house from here, but to better understand the influence of each action we have created an Energy+ model to analyze individually the effect of a single AA. The performance of each action is evaluated under the situations of six representative journeys as well as a year round on a very hot city: Dubai. The result of the effect good or badof action during each different season situation allows us to create the best combination of AA that are best fora year round climate resulting of the combination of several climatic seasons. This low-tech method will help usto find the common features of the houses of different hot climates of a big region and find the best typology. We have carried in parallel a cost study of the base house and the financial incidence of each single action to evaluate also the payback period by action.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 11, 2018 - 1:43:08 PM
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Ferran Yusta Garcia. La méthode des saisons climatiques : stratégie passive de conception architecturale de bâtiments basse consommation énergétique en climat très chaud. Mécanique [physics.med-ph]. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0146⟩. ⟨tel-01951360⟩

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