Étude métabolomique et valorisation pharmacologique et biotechnologique d'éspèces du genre Psiadia endémiques de la Réunion et de l'ile Maurice

Abstract : The present work describes the chemical composition of the plant genus Psiadia and focuses on three research topics: (1) a chemotaxonomic study of 11 species endemic to Reunion island, (2) a biological screening of 16 Psiadia species among which 11 are endemic to Reunion and 5 are endemic to Mauritius and (3) a phytochemical investigation of Psiadia arguta, endemic to Mauritius. The aim of the chemotaxonomic study was to identify chemical markers by a metabolomic approach using GC-MS and GC-FID for volatiles compounds and 1H NMR for non-volatiles compounds. The 11 studied species were harvested in different locations and seasons in order to analyze the seasonal or geographical variability of the chemical profile of each species. This study led to two classifications of the 11 species in terms of the composition of volatiles and non-volatiles compounds. The objective of the second research topic was to identify within 11 species endemic to Reunion island and 5 species endemic to Mauritius, the most active species for the biological activities tested. The targeted activities were antiplasmodial against Plasmodium falciparum, anticancer against the human cancer cell lines HeLa and anti-inflammatory through the inhibition of the enzyme HRP (Horseradish Peroxidase). Four species, P. amygdalina and P. anchusifolia, endemic to Reunion, and P. arguta and P. lithospermifolia, endemic to Mauritius, were particularly active against P. falciparum. Besides, P. dentata (endemic to Reunion) displayed interesting antiplasmodial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. The third research topic was devoted to a phytochemical investigation of P. arguta by a bioguided fractionation and led to purification and identification of 16 terpenoids: 2 triterpenes and 4 diterpenes including 4 new compounds. The evaluation of the antiplasmodial activity of all isolated compounds allowed to highlight activities of five diterpenes: labda-13(E)-en-8α-ol-15-yle acetate, labdan-8α-ol-15-yle acetate, 13-epi-sclareol, labda-13(E)-ene-8α,15-diol and (8R,13S)-labdane-8,15-diol. Furthermore, in order to identify factors influencing the production of bioactive compounds, P. arguta has been multiplicated using in vitro culture techniques and micropropagated plants were acclimatized.
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Keshika Mahadeo. Étude métabolomique et valorisation pharmacologique et biotechnologique d'éspèces du genre Psiadia endémiques de la Réunion et de l'ile Maurice. Chimie thérapeutique. Université de la Réunion, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LARE0001⟩. ⟨tel-01950685⟩

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