Du financement du cinéma et de l’audiovisuel à la consolidation d’une politique culturelle européenne : Une stratégie alliant gouvernance participative et revendication de la diversité

Abstract : We intend to highlight the sociopolitical process of building an European film and audiovisual industry by addressing through the issue of European funds that areMEDIA and Eurimages. We use two complementary working methods : an analysis of the European pressreleases on funding programs and objectives, and also a questionnaire survey of European producers of the sector.Several main lines emerge from this reflection. It appears that European funding for the sector have been an opportunity for the creation and implementation of a cinematographic cultural policy. At the same time, it promoted an entire industrialized business area of cultural production. The latter is measured with quantitative economic indicators, but can also be measured with qualitative tools concerning the cultural influence, effectiveness in European cohesion or effectiveness in building a European cinematographical identity perspective that we suggest as evolution. Politicians entered the game and valued the industry in order to better finance culture, since the cultural field is difficult to defend. It also emerges a division of producers into three categories. The pan-European who are satisfied. Even if they find the procedure rather complicated, they would not change anything in substance. Eurosceptic, nationalist producers who voluntarilyisolate themselves and denigrate funds they do not know. Volunteers producers, that would like to obtain the funds and make European co-productions, but do not have the critical mass required for access. Finally, this research reveals an European cinema which can be defined as aconglomerate of European nationalities, whose strengths are precisely the cultural,linguistical and aesthetical diversity, recognized even outside of Europe.Through the cinematographical and audiovisual sector, the European Union adopts an imaginary and an identity conveyed on screen. A strong cultural dominance canbe distinguished : that of the arthouse films. They register a good transnational movement, and their socio-cultural heritage is prevailing. Behind the cinema and audiovisual field actually hides a challenge of a differents cale : the European identity, based on its diversity, made with added cultural exceptions.We conclude by emphasizing that the European Union is using cinematographicaland audiovisual industry as an excuse to build and consolidate an European cinemathrough national cinemas and their specificities. Europe is funding the project methodology and the “technique" to achieve the ultimate aim of creating anEuropean cohesion and there fore identity, through the vehicle of the most powerful imaginary : the film. All this in a subversive way in order to have the support of all countries which preserve their cultural prerogatives, protecting Europe fromstandardization.
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Raluca Ioana Calin. Du financement du cinéma et de l’audiovisuel à la consolidation d’une politique culturelle européenne : Une stratégie alliant gouvernance participative et revendication de la diversité. Sociologie. Université d'Avignon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016AVIG1158⟩. ⟨tel-01950627⟩

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