Analyses palynologiques de gisements quaternaires du Bassin du Rhône

Abstract : Some pollen analysis realised along the river Rhône basin in places between Dijon and Bollène concerned ten archeological sites (four in the Beaune area, one in Lyon and two in the Drôme region), five paleontological sites in Burgundy and five lacustral or paleolacustral deposits including Pluvis (Ain), Le Grand Etang, near Suze-la-Rousse, and a sondage at Loriol in the river Drôme alluvial cone. These are the results obtained : 1- Concerning the vegetation during the Tardiglacial and the Holocene periods : * The Tardiglacial period with the appearance of mesothermophiles deciduous plants as early as the Bölling phase. Quercus pubescens is largely represented in the Atlantic forest. About 6000 BP Ulmus and Tilia are decreasing in number and from that time onwards, Fagus in Suze-la-Rousse and Loriol sites can be found. The important part played by Abies at the lower part of mountains can be noticed. * In the Lyon area and in Burgundy, Tilia is predominent in forests during the Atlantic. * The Gorge-de-Loup site shows that Abies occured on hill levels at the end of the Subboreal period and at the beginning of the Subatlantic. 2- Concerning the action of Man on environment : It can be detected as early as 8400 BP at Perreux (Loire). It became more important round 6000 BP and was on a large scale at the Bronze and Iron ages. It led to a destruction of primeval natural vegetation (oak and lime-and-oak mixed forests) with no possible going back to the original one. In the Antonnaire cave (Drôme) which was used as a sheepcot, the Neolithic layers composed of sheep droppings give specters whose interpretation is made possible thanks to the comparison established with specters given by today's sheep droppings. Herbivore droppings supply us with a correct information about the local vegetation (either tree or grass), provided we take into account the important part played by season as far as each taxon percentage is concerned. Single analysis, dealing with hyena coproliths and the bone breccia found at Les Furtins (early Würm, Interglacial Riss-Würm), set the problem of the representation of the specters worked out from such remains. We are thus supplied with supplementary information about the corresponding paleontological sites. The discussion on the merits of the palynological analysis of sediments in archeology or in paleontology is here resumed in the light of the results that had be obtained. Palynology can give a better understanding of the environment in which men and animals lived. It also gives a chance to appreciate men and animals' impact on the place they live in. It gives elements that are to be considered to get a better knowledge of vegetation evolution, though it must be borne in mind that important distortions (noticeable in specters) and due to Man's presence can be noticed mainly in the Holocene period. Palynology in wet locations is principally aiming at reconstructing botanical history but it cannot give complete elements about the nearby environment of sites occupied by Man, nor can it give full information about human activities. Thus, those two aspects of palynology, one dealing with archeology, the other with wet locations, are complementary. A systematic analysis of such sites should be undertaken simultaneously with surveys in the concerned areas in order to find places that might give reference sequences which cannot be done without if we want to understand site specters.
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Jacqueline Argant. Analyses palynologiques de gisements quaternaires du Bassin du Rhône. Sciences de la Terre. Université Claude-Bernard - Lyon 1, 1988. Français. ⟨tel-01950429v2⟩

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